Tag Archives: mobile UI

mobile interaction design tubik blog

7 Tips to Enhance Mobile Interactions

The quality of mobile design can be measured simply. When the process of usage is so smooth and effortless that people don’t even think about it, it is the sign of the professional design work. On the other hand, if there are some problems in the interaction system, users will definitely notice them and won’t be pleased about it.

 

Mobile apps are expected to be clear and easy to operate so that they could be effectively used anytime and anyplace. Designers’ task is to create an intuitive interface which will guide users within the app helping them operate its functionality without problems. In this article, we describe the essential aspects of the effective mobile interaction system along with the tips helping designers to create intuitive design.

UI navigation elements

 

Increase learnability

 

Every designer strives at creating a unique product with original interactions and navigation systems. Such an approach allows standing out a crowd and being noticeable on the market. However, creating absolutely new environment designers have to think how users will adjust to it.

 

If the interaction system of a mobile application has no logic and sequence or it doesn’t respond to needs of the target audience, it may be frustrating and annoying. That condition is critical for UX, so people will simply give up on trying to decipher an app and quit it.

 

To avoid this kind of outcome, designers need to care about learnability of the interactive elements. Learnability stands for how easy tasks can be attained during the first usage and how quickly users learn from the previous experience. To increase learnability, designers need to keep it simple and clear helping quickly adjust to it. Also, the system should be consistent and logical so that users could identify the repeating patterns and use a mobile app intuitively.

 

Consider multiple holds

 

We all are different in many ways, even how we hold smartphones. The way of holding smartphones depends on various factors including the situation and conditions in which the app is used as well as the task we need to accomplish.

 

There are three common types of holding a mobile. The first is when we take it with one hand and navigate it with a thumb. Another way is to hold a smartphone in one hand and interact with it with the forefinger of the other hand. Also, the type which is common for chatting people is holding a phone in two hands using both thumbs for actions. Of course, there are other types of holds but these three are thought to be the most common.

 

interaction_models_mobile_interfaces

Source

 

thumb-zone-mapping_UI_design

Source

 

Considering this fact, designers have to figure out if the layout elements placed effectively for different holds. One-handed hold requires special attention since it has the most limited space of reach. To make the interaction process within a mobile app effortless it may be a good idea to put the key components at the bottom of the screen so that users would be able to reach tap areas easily. In addition, the interactive elements should be big enough so there would be no chance for a mistap.

 

user motivation design

 

Apply recognition patterns

 

When a new app can be used intuitively it means that the designer did a good job. To provide intuitive interactions, UI design has to contain recognition patterns. They are the elements which users are already familiar with and those which give slight hints on how an app works. The thing is that using an application we are expecting to see certain things associated with the definite kind of product. For example, working with e-commerce apps we are used to seeing cart icons along with CTA buttons “Buy”. Familiar elements in a new app make people feel more confident in their actions.

 

Users become accustomed to things quickly and their absence makes them feel uncomfortable. That’s why, if you plan to use custom interactive elements, don’t forget to add some standard components. This way a new application won’t overwhelm with an absolutely unfamiliar environment and will help to learn quickly.

 

ux design for ecommerce tubik blog

 

Make a clean UI

 

A big pitfall of mobile UI design is small screens of the devices. Designers have to figure out how to include all content in a short space without turning user interface into clutter. Clean UI design helps effectively interact with a product since all the core elements can be easily reached.

 

To create neat mobile UI it is recommended to use icons as interactive components. Copy elements often can be too big for the small screen, so icons are a sufficient alternative. They can explain a function visualizing it with simple shapes and it helps to save the space on the screen. However, during usability testing, it should be thoroughly checked if the icons are perceived appropriately and transfer the right message.

 

Decrease the number of actions

 

Probably, many of us have the experience of using an annoying mobile app which made us take a long way before we could finally accomplish the task. It may often be caused by ineffective interaction system which employs too many actions and the unnecessary functionality.

 

Mobile apps usually serve as problem-solving assistants, so it’s vital for them to be designed ergonomically. It means that designers have to apply only core functional elements which will get the users right to the point they needed. Minimum of actions won’t make your product look primitive. It will help a mobile app be effective and pleasing in usage. Remember that people mostly rate the quality of an application not by extraordinary features but how helpful it is.

 

tubik_photo_app

 

Add game mechanics

 

Based on the facts described above, we can say that an effective mobile interaction system should be simple and clear to use so that it could be operated without problems.

 

However, simplifying the interface it’s vital not make it boring. Apps which seem ordinary have fewer chances to gain users’ attention. That’s why it’s important to bring some emotional aspects into applications that look standard at the first glance.

 

To make the process interesting and catchy, it may be a good idea to use gamification. It is the technique of exerting game mechanics into the non-game environment like mobile applications. Various challenges and leaderboards along with the awards and stickers motivate users to interact with a product more and come back to it constantly.

 

What’s more, implementing a game mechanic called a user journey is an effective way to create clear layout and transitions. A journey is user’s progression stages at the time of usage. Designers create UX that way so that people could go step-by-step through the various features which gradually change depending on needs of the target audience. An approach helps to avoid problems with incomprehensible interactions and functions.

 

Last but not least, gamification adds the element of fun. Users enjoy entertainment, challenges, and competitive spirit similar to video games, so they are encouraged to go back. People always need some kind of recreational activity so that they could escape from everyday routine for a bit. By adding the fun element into a casual application, you help to reduce some stress and relax for a moment.

 

toonie alarm UI design

 

Don’t forget about testing

 

Mobile interaction design aims at creating a user-friendly product which will be pleasant to use under different circumstances. But how can a designer define if an app is usable enough and distinguish possible problems in UX? This is when usability testing comes into play.

 

Usability testing is an essential stage in creating mobile apps helping to evaluate it by testing on the potential audience. It is usually conducted at the UX building stage before a project goes to the development team so that inefficient solutions could be changed easier and faster.

 

Various usability testing methods allow identifying problems and bugs and quickly eliminate them. This way designers can improve all the aspects of UX ensuring user satisfaction.

 

So, before you deliver a project to the development team remember to handle testing. Test it by yourself, on your colleagues, on the potential users and then you’ll get the desired outcome.

 

choice of color in UI design

 

A simple mobile interaction system is not that easy to create. It requires hard work, concentration and lots of practice before you receive sufficient results. Stay tuned!

 

Recommended reading

 

Take It Easy: Tips for Effort-Saving User Interfaces.

Gamification in UX. Increasing User Engagement.

Color Matters. 6 Tips on Choosing UI Colors.

Mobile Typography: 8 Steps Toward Powerful UI.

Small Elements, Big Impact: Types and Functions of UI Icons.

Tests Go First. Usability Testing in Design.

Gamification Mechanics in UX: Smart User Journey.

Mobile UI Design: 15 Basic Types of Screens.


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fitness_app_ui_design_article

Keep Fit. UI Design for Fitness Apps.

A professional athlete Billie Jean King once said: “Sports teaches you character, it teaches you to play by the rules, it teaches you to know what it feels like to win and lose — it teaches you about life.” Sports has become a part of our routine a long time ago. Even more, today a healthy lifestyle is a top trend which constantly grows its popularity across the world.

 

Fitness apps are the key helpers for people who strive to get fit. Their functionality gives a lot of opportunities and makes keeping fit easier. Understanding the significant impact of these applications on users’ everyday life, designers do their best to activate the problem-solving potential of fitness apps. Today’s article describes common screens and essential UI elements for fitness apps.

 

sport app motion ui tubik studio

Sports App Interactions

 

Sign-in and profile screen

 

Fitness app is something like a pocket instructor telling you what to do and gives a feedback on your achievements. To make it more comfortable and personalized, designers need to create an effective profile UI.

 

Before users obtain their profiles they usually go through the sign-in process. Fitness apps, as well as the other ones, can allow logging in via social networks still there are some aspects which users have to fill in to create a personalized profile. The applications usually require the personal data including age, gender, weight, and height which helps to define users’ physical condition. Profile creation is often similar to filling in an application form. This way users can easily provide the needed information to make a profile more personalized.

 

The major objective of a fitness app is to help users in their self-improvement, the reason why profiles should contain not only the personal data but also the user’s achievements such as the number of burnt calories or personal records in sports. It’s important to not to overload the profile screen with the unnecessary information otherwise user interface may look chaotic.

 

Home screen

 

It’s a core element for any type of apps. Home screens serve as the main point where users start the journey within a product. Creating UI for home screen designers need to think of it as a center of navigation and make sure users will be able to operate it easily. 

 

First of all, home screen should provide access to the other parts of the app. Designers can choose various ways of the presentation from a sidebar with minimalistic icons to the clickable subheaders leading to the different sections of app content. The choice often depends on the number of features provided by the product as well as the platform which it is meant for.

 

Activity screen

 

People who aim at getting fit always have to do various physical activities. Fitness apps provide users with the feature which helps to track how active they are during a day. To make a sufficient UI for activity screen, designers include different kinds of activities and sports. Traditionally, fitness apps provide tracking time spent on sports as well as measuring the distance which users cover during a day. The distance can be calculated in two ways: walking is measured by the number of steps and running is usually measured in miles (kilometers).

 

The information about users’ activity is often presented via diagrams of various forms. Such presentation contributes the effective visual perception of the data which includes many numerals. Also, designers often apply custom icons representing each kind of activity. This way the screen looks clean and neat even if users have a really active life.

 

fitness_app_ui_landscape_tubik

Fitness App

 

Heart rate screen

 

The heart is an engine which lets our body live and function, so it’s important to follow its condition daily. Many fitness apps can be connected to the various devices such as fitness wearables which allow measuring pulse. The applications usually transfer the data gathered with devices on a heart rate screen.

 

User interface representing the feature should be simple with the minimum of elements so that it could be easily operated. Since the process of pulse measuring takes some time it may be a good idea to supply the UI with sufficient animation which will show the loading process. For example, motion designers can animate an illustration of the heart showing it beats. Custom illustrations along with motion design can make UI look more proficient and make the process of the pulse measuring more interactive.

 

Sleep tracking screen

 

Nice sleep is a guarantee of the human health. Sportspeople know it better than anyone else and always try to control the time and quality of their sleep. Fitness apps show the gathered information during a night which includes the time and stages of sleep. There are four stages of sleep: the first and the second are called light sleep, the third is deep sleep and the fourth is rem sleep. The applications track these stages and in the morning users can see the statistics. The data on sleep is often shown as graphs.

 

Calories screen

 

They say that fitness people are obsessed with calories. Well, there is truth in the words because if you want to get fit it’s vital to control what and how much you eat. As we said above, fitness applications show the information on the number of burnt calories based on the activity results. The calories data can be displayed on the activity screen as well as on the personal profile. However, it may be an effective solution to create a separate screen to provide users with the expanded information on the lost calories.

 

Sport app UI design

Sports App

 

Progress screen

 

To stay motivated and continue self-improvement, it’s important to know that the hard work gives results. The progress screen shows the statistics about users achievements along with failures. Here the graphs will be the best choice. If people have the progress, they see that their results are getting better and the scales on the graphs go higher.

 

Schedule screen

 

There can be many sports activities in different time and different places so the schedule seems to be essential in this situation. The screen of schedule is standardized, but to make it unique and original, designers can add some interesting icons representing various sports directions.

 

Goals screen

 

Goals move us to achieve more and more, especially if we talk about fitness. People start doing sport because they have some goals like losing weight or shaping up. In fitness applications, users set maybe a bit less radical goals but easier to achieve on a regular basis. They often include walking a certain number of steps per day or week along with burning the fixed amount of calories.

 

The screen of goals can be presented as a sheet divided into categories: to do, doing, done. This way users will see how much they have managed to achieve and what they need to strive for. In addition, designers can settle the system of awards which will help users be even more motivated. We’ve already described awards as effective gamification tools which contribute increasing user engagement. You can find detailed info in our previous articles.

 

tubik_studio_bebright_app

BeBright App

 

The sport requires persistence and fortitude and so does the creation of sufficient UI design. Learn the basics, add some inspiration and you can surprise yourself. Stay tuned!

 

Recommended reading

 

If you want to learn more about common screens for various mobile apps, here is the list of helpful articles revealing tips on mobile UI design and its components.

Mobile UI Design: 15 Basic Types of Screens.

Feel the Beat. UI Design for Music Streaming Services.

Spectacular Design. Elements of Cinema App UI.

 

fitness_app_ui_design_article


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ui design for music apps

Feel the Beat. UI Design for Music Streaming Services.

People like listening to music. It’s an axiom and never a question. As Friedrich Nietzsche said: “Without music, life would be a mistake.” And who would argue? All of us listen to music daily. Some may prefer rock, others — classical compositions still no one misses a chance to enjoy their favorite tracks. Considering this fact, the need of having a twenty-four-hour access to music seems as a today’s must-have.

 

It’s hard to say how many music service products exist today but the industry constantly grows so designers have lots of work to do. We devote a new article to the peculiarities of UI design for music streaming services. Let’s see what screens are typical for this type of digital products and what elements their UI requires.

 

What do users expect from music streaming products?

 

Music streaming products aim at providing users with an access to the various musical tracks from all over the world. There are both free and paid services trending on the digital market and they are available for different devices including PCs and smartphones. Of course, all music streaming apps strive at uniqueness still they have a common base of tasks to accomplish. Let’s see what this kind of products usually offers to their users.

 

Online and offline music streaming. The majority of music players usually provide online streaming so that users could enjoy various tracks without downloading them on their devices. However, people can’t always have an access to the Internet so the feature enabling to download certain compositions and play them seems to be essential.

 

Playlists. Music streaming products contribute thousands of different tracks but even the biggest music lovers won’t listen to all of them. Playlists are a core part of music players. They allow users to choose and combine their favorite compositions for different mood and situations.

 

Music flow. Sometimes, people get bored of their playlists and want just some random tracks to play. Music flow is a list of tracks based on the users’ preferences which never repeats itself.

 

Radio channel. They say all new is well overlooked old. Even having a quick access to the favorite music, there are still many radio lovers. In-app radio channels are a nice alternative to the flow as well as an element of entertainment.

 

Music storage. Not all the tracks can be free to listen, which is why music players often give the possibility to buy paid tracks and add them to their playlists.

 

Equalizer. People perceive music differently so the need of sound settings is obvious. Equalizer helps to make music sound in the best way for a user by regulating music tones.

 

music streaming app design

BeatSync App

 

Screens for music service products

 

Based on the users’ needs designers have formed a standard set of screens (pages) which are typical for this kind of product. Let’s see what they are and which UI elements they usually include.

 

Home screen

 

Any digital product has a page or a screen where users start their journey within a product each time they launch it. A home screen is also known as the main page of a digital product. It received its name as it provides a starting point with many further directions for a user.

 

A home page of music streaming products often contains direct links to the most important areas of interaction with an application such as a personal profile, playlists, search field, and music store. Also, a home page provides an insight on music updates as well as the recommended music for a user.

 

Traditionally, UI of a home screen for a music app is made in minimalistic style. Recommendations and music novelties are presented via pictures of album covers or artists’ photos followed by captions saying the name. This way the search process becomes more intuitive and pleasant.

 

Profile screen

 

Profiles are a tool making interaction within a product more personalized. They allow operating with the information effectively and make user experience individual for everyone. As for music products, personal profiles assist developers to gather information about users’ tastes and preferences in music genres and artists. Based on the data, an app will provide listeners with recommended music as well as interesting fresh tracks.

 

In addition, a personal account is a good way to add features of a social app to a music streaming product. This way users can unite in a virtual community of a certain product and share the personal info with the others.

 

The principle of a profile page design remains similar for all types of products. First of all, a profile page should be clear in use. The amount of the information has to be limited otherwise a profile screen may look too complex. What’s more, it’s vital to make sure the navigation system is intuitive so that it wouldn’t have to take much effort to puzzle out the app.

 

UI Navigation menu and Profile screens v2 for Echo case study

Echo app

 

Search screen

 

Hunting for new songs is a daily routine for true music lovers. Designers need to make sure it goes easily and leaves only pleasant impressions. UX for search screen should be well-thought and intuitive so that users could quickly find what they need. An essential part of a search screen are filters helping to sort the received results. There are some typical filters for a music app which include genre, artists, songs albums and a year of release.

 

Playlist screen

 

Music lovers like creating their own playlist for every occasion. Obviously, every music app is obligated to provide their users with such a feature. Playlist screen looks similar on different apps: it’s a list of tracks showing the name of the song, singer or band, and the length of the soundtrack. Also, designers can add a small image of the album this track belongs to. In case a song has no image there still should be an icon, for example, with a music note.

 

Player screen

 

The page which people visit most of the time using a music app is a player. People can control what they listen and how they listen to it via the player. The feature allows switching, stopping and starting a track with standard buttons which are easily recognized. This set is usually placed centrally on the bottom of the screen. The major part of the screen is typically taken by the image attached. Also, sometimes instead of a picture, many designers apply music visualizer as a central part of the screen. Visualizer is a good opportunity to reveal the imagination and creativity which is always inspiring for designers.

 

tubik studio music_app

Music App

 

Music feed screen

 

If a music streaming service provides a possibility to add friends and follow other users, a music feed should also be considered. Feed is usually known as a constantly changing list of news and other data users choose to follow. Music feed includes the updates on the friends’ pages as well as news from the pages of particular artists they follow.

 

Designers make a simple clear UI for music feed which isn’t overloaded with visual details. It allows people to scan quickly through the feed not getting overwhelmed with tons of information.

 

ui design for music app feed screen

Echo app

 

Settings (equalizer screen)

 

Each app needs to have settings screen but a music app requires one specialized option. Besides other standard settings, they provide a possibility to tune the sound of the music. Depending on the music genre experienced listeners adjust the loudness of specific frequencies via an equalizer. Equalizers often look similar to vertical graphics responsible for certain frequencies which users can regulate with sliders. The designers often do experiments with equalizer UI to be certain it’s not boring to use.

 

Music store

 

As we said above, not all the music can be free so a music store comes in handy. UI design for music store usually borrows some principles of e-commerce design. First of all, paid music is presented in a catalog with relevant filters for the search. Clear visual elements support the product not overshadowing it.

 

app UI design Tubik Studio

Singify App

 

Music has always been a source of inspiration for people around the world. Trends may constantly change but music will never step aside as well as products providing us with our favorite tracks. So, possibly, sooner or later each designer will create their own new music product.

 

Recommended reading

 

Mobile UI Design: 15 Basic Types of Screens

 

Case Study: Echo. Designing User Experience and User Interface


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gourmet_herbs_website_design_tubik

Sell Like Hotcakes: UI Designs for E-Commerce.

In many cases when we are buying something, it’s not just about getting new things. It’s often about feeling and memories, dreams and achievements, changing ourselves inside and outside, sharing and giving, improving and learning… The advent of new technologies opened new perspectives for both shoppers and sellers, and the process of upgrading this type of relations is in active progress. A decade or two ago, buying something on the Internet was not included in a typical daily routine while now getting things and services in a couple of clicks cannot surprise anyone.

 

This state of things sets new challenges for the sellers, with efficient and appealing digital products for e-commerce ahead. “If you do build a great experience, customers tell each other about that. Word of mouth is very powerful,” said Jeff Bezos, the founder of Amazon, the biggest global online retailer. Today’s generation of shoppers is different in its vast majority: they are ready to buy almost everything online, they want to see the simple way to do it, they demand secure payment and fast delivery — and good design to present that all. That’s why websites and applications for e-commerce are so various: they have to attract their customers without getting lost in the ocean of the online competition. Well-designed user experience, based on research of the market and target audience as well as nice and effective visual performance, grows the chances of getting profits: in e-commerce sphere, the connection between design and profits is tighter than anywhere else.

 

Today we would like to offer you the set of interface concepts created by Tubik designers with the issue of e-commerce in mind. Here you’ll find the websites, mobile applications and landing pages aimed at selling products and services.

 

Website for a florist shop

 

web design florist store ecommerce

 

Flowers present the popular way to express various feelings and celebrate special occasions. Here’s the design concept for the online florist store: the general stylistic concept is light, minimalist and airy while prominent theme photos set the mood and inform users about the nature of the e-commerce offer. The home page sets the theme, establishes branding with the logo and slogan and shares some information about the service. The header gives the instant access to the extended menu of items hidden behind the hamburger button as well as provides the links to search, wishlist and shopping cart presented with minimalistic stroke icons. The footer includes the links to important service pages and accounts in social networks.

 

florist shop website design

 

Another page shows the catalog of items organized in cards: each presents the high-quality photo which is vital for this kind of business, price, and ability to add it to the cart or save to the wishlist right from the catalog page. There’s also the cloud of tags marking popular categories for better navigation.

 

florist shop website design

 

If the user wants to learn more about the particular offer, it can go to its product page, like the one shown above, and check the details.

 

Application for the e-commerce jewelry store

 

jewellery ecommerce app UI

 

Here’s a set of interactions for the app design concept of the online jewelry shop. The presented screens show the starting point of interaction with the app from the splash screen to the catalog showing categories of goods and special offers. The app provides theme photos setting the instant visual associations with the offered items while icons are stroke and minimalistic not to distract buyers’ attention. The color palette features pastel shades which look sophisticated on general layout full of light and air, and that feeling is supported with smooth and unobtrusive animation of the interface elements.

 

jewellery ecommerce app

 

The presented screens show the animated interactions with items: you can see how users can choose a product from the catalog, check its details and rating. They can also share the product cards to their social network accounts and open check out. Visually, the center of the visual composition is focused on the images presenting the items, while icons are stroke and minimalistic not to distract buyers’ attention.

 

Application for a cinema

 

cinema_app_ui_design_tubik

 

Despite the Internet, movie portals and super TV-sets we have in our homes, going to the cinema is still one of the most enjoyable and popular ways to spend free time either alone or together with friends and family. We follow the premiers, check the schedules, discuss acting and special effects afterward. And obviously, it is another perspective for e-commerce challenge. Here’s a sort of creative experiment — a mobile application for a cinema chain called Cinema App. The home screen shows the list of films presented with instantly recognizable posters. Tapping on the one among them, users see a screen of the particular film with all the necessary details: genre, trailer, description, rating, as well as the showings for the particular city for a particular date.

 

cinema app interaction ui animation

 

And this is the flow of choosing and booking the seat. Selecting a particular showing, users can see the available seats, choose the ones they like and book them, paying right from the app.

 

Landing page for dance academy

 

dance_academy_website_interactions_tubik

 

Here is the animated set of interactions for the landing page of the dance academy called HeartBeat. The elegant and minimalistic layout shows prominent theme images, gives short descriptions of the activities and links to core areas of information as well as provides the contact form to get in touch. The top section includes the horizontal slider which informs users about the upcoming workshops. Scrolling down, users can read brief descriptions about the academy and the types of classes it offers with buttons enabling to learn more, and they can use the simple contact form to get in touch. The designer was inspired by the photos of dancers by NYC Dance Project, Paul B. Goode, Andrew Eccles, Paul Kolnik, and rich animation of the dancers added a special experience to scrolling. This approach creates a sort of wow-effect to support aesthetic satisfaction which corresponds to the preferences of the target audience. This is the effective example of selling the original type of services with sophisticated design solutions and a good balance of beauty and simplicity.

 

Website for herbs and spices store

 

web design UI tubik studio

 

This is the design concept of The Gourmet, the online market for herbs, spices, seasonings and all that kind of stuff. Here you can see a product page presenting a particular item with the prominent theme image, description, price, and ability to add the item to the cart. The minimalist header provides the links to the core areas of the website while hamburger menu hides the extended catalog. Moreover, here designer tried a creative experiment: this concept applies design techniques traditional in e-commerce for fashion but the type of goods is very different – they are for eating and cooking.

 

Bookshop Website

 

online_bookshop_website_design_tubik

 

The famous author Stephen King once said: “Books are a uniquely portable magic” and numerous generations of readers prove it all the time. More and more people now use the Internet as the source to both learn about books and buy them. To support this direction of e-commerce, here’s the design concept for an online bookshop Book Pitch. The interface uses light and airy background and includes several theme blogs showing news, bestsellers, categories of items and reviews from readers. The visual presentation is strengthened with slight scroll animation.

 

bookshop website animation

 

Landing page for selling exhibition tickets

 

museum website

 

Although the sphere of art doesn’t look directly linked to e-commerce, the connection really exists: more and more users are buying and booking tickets online. Here’s the interface for this service — a landing page promoting an art exhibition. The idea behind it was to make this sort of informative promotion aesthetic and unobtrusive for the user as well as highly informative. It applies the horizontal scroll with the smooth animation of cards presenting key exhibits, shows the locations and dates and prominent call-to-action for buying a ticket.

 

Landing page for an online travel gear store

 

Travel Gear Landing page by TUBIK

 

Here is the layout of a landing page: the company presented by it sells gear for extreme sports and active traveling so images were selected to set immediate understanding of the main theme. The page includes the general description of the shop, presents the ability of transition to the catalog via the description of hot offers and also has testimonials part to provide users’ opinion about the service.

 

Website for a bakery

 

Bakery website design case study tubik

 

Another example the concept of a bakery website for which we presented the full design case study here before. Here is the animated version featuring interactions with the website: home page, catalog the f offers and the page presenting a particular position. The designer followed the philosophy of minimalism which is user-friendly, attractive and informative. Dark background supports the brand image with the idea of the elite and exclusive offer as well as set the ground for sophisticated presentation of the sold items.

 

Randomizer for the online furniture store

 

tubik studio design UI

 

Here’s the concept of a randomizer that allows users to choose between many options of designer chairs in this case. However, the idea can be applied to any e-commerce digital product. This is a helpful thing as usually we don’t know what we want until we see it. Minimal and bold color palette and prominent item images make the interface helpful and intuitive for users.

 

Landing page for online farm grocery

 

Landing Page Animation Tubik Studio

 

As a famous writer George Bernard Shaw once said, there is no sincerer love than the love of food. This one is a landing page whose aim is to promote the shop of organic food. It is composed of several blocks presenting the products, highlighting some important aspects of service, call to actions and testimonials.

 

Website for the fashionable clothes shop

 

fashion clothes ecommerce website

 

Another example of design for e-commerce presents the layout of a catalog page for the website of a company selling fashionable clothes for women. The header includes the links to the global categories of the clothes and the page features the fresh arrivals with photos on models, pricing, and brief item description.

 

Useful articles

 

If you want to go deeper into the theme of design for e-commerce and learn more about strategies, principles, terms and practical cases, this set of articles can be helpful

Hit the Spot: Design Strategies for Profitable Landing Pages.

UX Design for E-Commerce: Principles and Strategies.

Business-Oriented Design. Know Your Target.

Case Study: Vinny’s Bakery. UI Design for E-Commerce.

Short but Vital. Key Abbreviations in Design for Business.

Business Terms in Design for E-Commerce. Sales Basics

Landing Page. Direct Flight to High Conversion.

Case Study: Saily App. Designing C2C E-Commerce App.


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Welcome to read or download free e-books about Design for Business and Problem-Solving Web Design

bright_vibe_calendar_app_ui_tubik

Mobile Typography: 8 Steps Toward Powerful UI.

Mobile design heavily depends on every detail it consists of. Screens are quite small so designers need to choose elements thoughtfully trying not to overload user interface. Such a peculiarity makes typography creation for a mobile rather tough task. Mobile typography requires deep attention to the details from an appropriate kind of fonts to compelling tracking and alignment.

 

No matter how challenging it sounds, designers strive to build effective mobile design because smartphones are a huge part of our life. The article describes essential principles for compelling mobile typography.

 

tubikstudio ui app design

 

High level of legibility

 

Legibility is called a level of how distinguishable and recognizable the words and characters are in a text. The major objective of powerful typography is clear text which users perceive without efforts. Small screens and ambient light of mobile devices may become a problem on the way to creating legible typography. To avoid problems with legibility, designers need to consider all the factors influencing clarity of text.

 

Font size

 

In terms of mobile typography, the size does really matter. Some may think that on small screens tiny fonts will work best. It’s a misbelief. Small fonts on a bright mobile screen can make user’s eyes hurt from tension and bring a headache. Of course, modern devices allow screen zooming still it’s not always convenient for users to spare an unnecessary effort. Fonts in mobile UI should be big enough for users to read easily but not too big to save typographic hierarchy. The appropriate font size is a key to pleasing UX.

 

Leading

 

As we’ve mentioned in our previous article, leading is the spacing between the baselines of copy. In a mobile interface, leading is usually smaller compared to a desktop version. Wide leading may ruin the visual unity of text while too short space makes it badly legible. If a leading is done right, readers go fast from one text line to another and big pieces of copy become legible.

 

todo list UI app tubik studio

To-Do List App

 

Line length

 

To make body copy comfortable for reading in mobile interface, designers consider all the parameters including length of text lines. Optimal line length for a desktop screen won’t work same for mobile. Too long lines would go beyond screen borders, that is why designers are recommended to keep the number of character per line within 30-40.

 

White space

 

When design elements are tightly gathered in a bunch, the user interface looks messy and navigation is rather difficult. Designers need to give elements space to breathe bringing a relief to users’ eyes and mind. The size of mobile screens doesn’t allow using much of white space that’s why a balance between the elements has to be found.

 

UI animation wine app

Wine Year App

 

Fewer levels of hierarchy

 

Visual hierarchy is applied to organize content in interfaces clearly so that users could distinguish layout objects on the basis of their physical differences, such as size, color, contrast, alignment etc. Hierarchy divides content into levels assisting users to learn copy content gradually step by step without effort and get oriented in the digital product.

 

Web design usually contains three levels of copy content which include such elements as headings, subheaders, body copy, CTA buttons, and captions. However, small mobile screens don’t provide enough space for three levels, so designers apply only two. Elements of a secondary level such as subheaders step aside to make UI look clean.

 

mobile app design tubik studio

Moneywise App

 

Simplicity of fonts

 

A key feature of effective mobile UI is simplicity. Design should be clear and the navigation easy to use, so font choices have to be based on the requirements. First of all, it is recommended to keep a number of fonts within two or three to make text look solid. Designers often stop their choice on two types of fonts for mobile interfaces because it requires fewer levels of hierarchy than web design.

 

Moreover, kinds of fonts should also fit a simple and clean style. Novelty and decorative fonts may look illegible on small screens. Designers regularly combine a serif and a sans-serif fonts to create enough contrast of copy elements in the layout. In addition, it’s good to reduce effects like a shadow for mobile fonts. On desktop screens, they may work nice but will make small mobile screens look overloaded.

 

book swap app interaction design

Book Swap Interactions

 

Delicate contrast

 

Contrast is an efficient tool for designers. It helps highlight vital UI elements as well as contribute a desirable level of text legibility. However, speaking of mobile interfaces, contrast may play a bad joke. Small screens, ambient light, and short fonts make a contrast image look unpleasant for users’ eyes. Reducing contrast between the background and copy elements, designers help users feel comfortable while reading text on a mobile screen.

 

Contrast can be created not only via colors but with sizes of fonts to set visual hierarchy. Nevertheless, mobile interfaces are short of space for giant headings, that’s why size contrast should be also reduced.

 

jewellery ecommerce app

Jewellery E-Commerce App

 

Responsive typography

 

People surf the Internet via all devices available today. That’s why responsive design is a key condition for a successful digital product. Typography is a vital part of design responsiveness. Wrong size, width, and placement of fonts have a big impact on a whole composition. Even the most insignificant changes may break the balance between all design elements.

 

Creating typography for a digital product, designers need to consider how it will look on different devices. Planning such things forehead helps to avoid unnecessary problems in the future.

 

cinema app interaction ui animation

Cinema App

 

Prioritized content

 

To make mobile interfaces simple and useful, designers need to take care of the wise content organization. Users want to have a fast access to information they are looking for and mobile screens can make the process complicated.

 

Mobile UI has no room for unnecessary copy elements. There should be only essential content thoughtfully prioritized. Based on users’ needs and preferences, designers set a structure assisting people to navigate within the product and find what they are searching for. Text elements are prioritized by size changes as well as different width or kind of font.

 

tubik_studio_book_swap

Book App

 

Clear text rags

 

Depending on the type of a product, designers apply appropriate alignment for text blocks. It can be placed on the left, on the right, centrally or it can be justified. However, speaking of mobile design many experts often stop their choice on left side alignment. This kind forms text where the beginning of each line is placed equally and the rags look similar to stairways. Such a structure helps users easily go from one text line to another and scan text fast and easily. If body copy alignment is justified (text lines placed equally), it has no rags either side. The text with such structure is difficult to scan on a mobile screen.

 

tubik studio healthy food animation

Healthy Food App

 

Functional typography

 

While computer users do the clicks and scrolling to interact with products, mobile screens should provide much more functionality. There are many text elements in mobile interfaces that allow users to accomplish certain actions like buying a product, making a call, going to a website and others.

 

Designers need to make sure users understand how the text elements work and enable them to complete the actions. Functional typography should be highlighted among the other and clickable elements should be big enough to tap on them.

 

menu_interactions_ui_animation_tubik

Menu Interactions

 

Things to jot down

 

Minimalism. Mobile screens are short of space, so try not to overload it. Simple fonts, clean style, and a minimum of elements will do their job.

Test the smallest first. Mobile devices have various sizes but the biggest problem is the smallest. Create your design based on how it will look on the tiny screens first. When it’s ready, you can easily adapt it for the bigger sizes.

Avoid decorative and cursive fonts. They don’t render properly on the small screens. Moreover, decorative fonts overload interface with unnecessary details.

Legibility first. Of course, it’s good to make beautiful catchy UI but sometimes all the colors, contrast, original fonts may hurt the legibility of copy content. A good looking text is not enough. Make sure it is legible otherwise users won’t be able to read information and use your product properly.

 
jewellery ecommerce app UI

Jewellery App

 

Every mobile UI design project is an interesting challenge. Meet it with the knowledge and the results will please you.

 

Recommended reading

 

Meaningful Mobile Typography by UXPin group

 

Mobile UI Design: 15 Basic Types of Screens.

 

7 Simple Rules for Mobile Typography

 

Typography in UI: Guide for Beginners


Welcome to see the designs by Tubik Studio on Dribbble and Behance

upper app UI design case study

Lean and Mean: Power of Minimalism in UI Design.

Simple doesn’t mean primitive. Less isn’t vague. Short doesn’t say little. Air doesn’t equal emptiness. Today we are talking about minimalism.

 

In the book «The More of Less», Joshua Becker said: «You don’t need more space. You need less stuff.» Minimalism is often discussed nowadays in different spheres of life and work, and diverse directions of design are not the exception. Let’s see what are its benefits and points to consider.

 

web design tubik studio

 

What is minimalism?

 

Actually, minimalism is a word of broad meaning used in various spheres of human activity. Merriam-Webster dictionary defines it as «a style or technique (as in music, literature, or design) that is characterized by extreme spareness and simplicity». Being applied to more and more fields, it saves its core traits: meaningful and simple.

 

Minimalism as a direction of visual design got especially popular in the 1960s in New York when new and older artists moved toward geometric abstraction in painting and sculpture. The movement found its impression in the artworks associated with Bauhaus, De Stijl, Constructivism and so on. In diverse spheres of visual arts, key principle of minimalism was leaving only essential part of features to focus the recipient’s attention as well as support general elegance. Lines, shapes, dots, colors, spare space, composition — everything should serve its function being thoughtfully organized. Today we can meet minimalism in a variety of life spheres: architecture, arts, photography, all kinds of design, literature, music and even food presentation.

 

«A shape, a volume, a color, a surface is something itself. It shouldn’t be concealed as part of a fairly different whole. The shapes and materials shouldn’t be altered by their context», said Donald Judd, an American artist associated with minimalism. Working in this style, designers seek to make the interfaces simple but not empty, stylish but not overloaded. They tend to use negative space, bold color and font combinations, and multifunctional details making the simplicity elegant. The line dividing simple and primitive is very thin. That is why not all the designers take the risk of trying this direction: some may think it looks too decent, the others don’t find enough ways to show much with fewer elements.

 

Tubik studio UI design

Architecture Blog

 

Characteristics of minimalism

 

Main features of minimalism often mentioned by designers include:

  • Simplicity
  • Clarity
  • Expressive visual hierarchy
  • High attention to proportions and composition
  • Functionality of every element
  • Big amount of spare space
  • High attention ratio to core details
  • Typography as a significant design element
  • Eliminating non-functional decorative elements

 

Surely, the list can be continued but even the given positions show that minimalism in UI sounds like user-friendly trend. Applied wisely, it helps users to see the core elements of the interface and makes user journey intuitive and purposeful. Moreover, minimalist interfaces usually look sophisticated and uncluttered bringing aesthetic satisfaction as one of the factors of desirability in UX.

 

dance academy landing page

Dance Academy landing page

 

Practices of minimalism in digital design

 

Today minimalism is one of the wide-spread trends in the design of websites and mobile applications. Main points to consider can be described with the following practices.

 

Flat design

 

As we mentioned in one of our previous articles, flat design became a great supporter of minimalism in modern digital products. The most prominent feature of this direction is applying flat 2-dimensional visual details as the opposite to highly realistic and detailed skeuomorphic images. Flat images usually use fewer elements and curves, avoid highlights, shadows, gradients, or textures. This approach allows creating images, buttons, icons and illustrations which look neat in different resolutions and sizes. It lets designers enhance usability and visual harmony of user interfaces.

 

However, the terms «flat» and «minimalist» shouldn’t replace each other which often happens today. They are not the same. «Flat» deals with the style of icons, illustration, buttons and other visual elements of the interface in the aspect of gradients, textures, shadows etc. «Minimalist» has much broader meaning and deals with the layout in general, its composition, color palette, contrast and all the techniques of visual performance applied to it. So, flat can be described as one of the design techniques applied in the minimalist approach to creating interfaces.

 

ui animation cafe app tubikstudio

Cafe Coupon App

 

Monochrome or limited color palette

 

Color is a feature of a great potential in design of interfaces as it can set both informative and emotional links between the product and the user. Designers working in minimalism tend to take the maximum from color choices, and in most cases, they limit color palette to monochrome or minimal set of colors. This strengthens the chosen colors and doesn’t distract users with too much variety. Such an approach is efficient in interfaces concentrating users’ attention on particular actions like buying, subscribing, donating, starting to use etc. Moreover, in the psychological perspective, the colors usually transfer particular associations and emotions perceived by users, so limited palette makes chosen colors stronger in this aspect.

 

tubik studio web UI design

Slopes Website

 

Bold and expressive typography

 

Typography in minimalistic design is seen as one of the core visual elements of not only informing users about the content but also setting the style and enhancing visual performance. Choosing the way of concise use for graphics, designers usually pay much attention to the choice of typography and never hurry in testing the pairs, sizes and combinations. As well as color, fonts and typefaces are seen as a strong graphic element contributing into general elegance and the emotional message it sends. On the other hand, readability and legibility do not lose their leading positions in the matter of choice.

 

upper app UI design case study

Upper App

 

Choice limitation

 

One of the strong sides of minimalism in interfaces is enhanced user concentration. Being focused on functionality and simplicity, the pages and screens of this kind don’t usually overload users attention with decorative elements, shades, colors, details, motion, so in this way, they support high attention ratio and often let users quickly solve their problems and navigate through the website or app.

 

tubik studio web ui design

Birds of Paradise Encyclopedia

 

Prominent theme visual elements

 

Working on minimalist UI, designers do not apply many images, but those which are chosen to be used are really prominent, catchy and informative. This approach results in the long and thorough search of the «right» image which would cover all those functions and set the required mood instantly. The photo or illustration itself has to follow the principles of minimalism, otherwise, the choice of the wrong image can ruin all the layout integrity.

 

website design UI

Architecture Firm

 

Concise and intuitive navigation

 

Navigation in minimalist interfaces presents another challenge: designers have to prioritize the elements rigorously in order to show only the elements of the highest importance. There are different techniques to hide the part of navigation, but doing this, it’s vital to ensure that users will find what they need easily. That is one of the reasons why minimalist approach can be criticized: not being presented properly and tested enough, solutions like hamburger menus and hidden layout elements can leave some users lost in the journey around the website. Obviously, it is not the good ground for positive user experience, therefore every solution about navigation should follow the philosophy «measure thrice and cut once».

 

Adding air and using negative space

 

White space (also called negative) in digital design is the term which is more about space rather than color. In minimalism, it is one more effective way of adding elegance and marking out the core elements. Also, in terms of monochromatic or limited color palette, white or negative space plays the big role in creating enough contrast and supporting legibility.

 

tubik studio ice ui website

Ice Website

 

Grids

 

Grid system in minimalist interfaces can be effective for making the layout look highly-organized, especially if the website presents a lot of homogenous content. Another benefit is that grids are responsive-friendly.

 

web design UI concept tubik studio

The Big Landscape

 

Contrast

 

Following the philosophy of limits and simplicity, minimalism depends much on contrast as a tool of good visual performance. The choice of colors, shapes and placement are often based on the contrast as the key feature.

 

tubikstudio ui animation website design

Bjorn Website

 

Well, it’s easy to see that minimalism has a great number of benefits and presents a good approach in creating user-friendly interfaces. However, it doesn’t mean that minimalism should be applied everywhere: every goal should be achieved by the proper means. One thing is for sure: the more minimalistic is the interface, the more time and effort the designer should invest to make it clear and functional. Elegance and beauty of minimalism should support the global aim of providing positive user experience.

 

Recommended reading

 

The Characteristics of Minimalism in Web Design

 

The How and Why of Minimalism

 

6 Steps to Perfecting Minimalism in Web Design

 

Functional Minimalism for Web Design


Welcome to see the designs by Tubik Studio on Dribbble and Behance

upper app UI design case study

Case Study: Upper App. UI Design for To-Do List.

Famous author and motivational speaker Zig Ziglar once said: «You were born to win, but to be a winner, you must plan to win, prepare to win, and expect to win.» Planning our day and managing our tasks is the significant job we have to do regularly and devotedly in case we seek for success. Tons of books, articles and interviews from successful and productive people generally send the global message: to be productive you have to plan your day and tasks distributing your time and effort wisely. 

 

Would you like to have a reliable helping hand in the process of planning your days and setting goals effectively and without any distractions? Welcome to try Upper, simple and elegant free application for iPhones, designed and developed by Tubik team. Today this motivating app is featured and spinning up at Product Hunt, so we’ve also decided to unveil some details of the to-do list design and functionality with our readers.

 

Upper App to-do list tubik

 

Task

 

Full-cycle UI/UX design for the simple and motivational productivity app for iPhones.

 

Process

 

Creating the to-do list application, Tubik team realized the high scale of competition in this sphere of utilities: that was a step into the red ocean. Still, as it usually happens in the fields covering wide and diverse target audience, a variety of the products is another user-friendly feature: it allows choosing the styles and features every particular user likes. Continuing the theme of personal productivity, which was started with our previous app Toonie Alarm, we’ve established the goal to present the to-do list UI of totally different look and functionality deeply focused on personal and professional motivation.

 

 upper app UI design

 

In UX perspective, the to-do list design was concentrated on extremely simple interactions and intuitive navigation, while in UI aspect the core concerns gathered around high readability level and visual hierarchy that would allow users to use the app easily in any environment and on the go. In addition, working on the visual performance of the app user interface, Tubik designer Ernest Asanov made a general stylistic concept choice in favor of minimalist and elegant solutions.

 

Functionality

 

When our team made a decision to design to-do list, the basic idea set behind Upper was creating a helpful list app design, deeply concentrating user’s attention on the tasks and deadline. That’s why it doesn’t include complex functionality, distractions or decorations. It presents only the features and elements needed for time and task management.

 

Functions and features provide the following:

  • All the features of the app are free for everyone
  • Upper Streak Challenge motivate users to complete all the tasks for the day
  • Statistics of tasks completion
  • Simple and clear navigation
  • Easy adding, deleting and marking tasks
  • Eye-pleasing slight animation
  • Instant sharing achievements with friends

 

upper app UI design case study

 

Design and Layout

 

Interactions: The basic functionality of the app is built around user’s ability to create the list of tasks which can be saved for the particular date and time, easily deleted or marked complete. In addition, Upper analyzes task completion progress and shows stats to keep users updated and motivated. The absence of distractions, simple screen design and thought-out typography make the content highly readable and allow using the app easily in any environment and on-the-go.

 

upper app UI design case study

 

Basic functional buttons are placed in the bottom of the screen, which supports usability for users with big devices. Different swipe gestures allow a user to mark the task complete or delete it from the list. Core information such as dates, the words for the closest days (tomorrow, today), the number of tasks and days in Upper Streak are presented in the uppercase font, supporting both efficient visual hierarchy of the layout elements and the harmonic consistency in combination with the product brand name.

 

Upper App to-do list 7

 

Upper Streak: The original feature of Upper App is user motivation with special challenge of non-breaking plans and increasing productivity potential. The app motivates to complete all the planned tasks via Upper Streak Challenge. Streak is the period during which users don’t interrupt completing the tasks with Upper: it shows the achievement of being consistent and productive and encourages not to stop and break the progress. Seeing your determination, the app will challenge you with the bigger number of tasks, so users are motivated to get organized and complete the plans with Upper without missing a day.

 

upper app UI design case study

 

Color and style: The task list design is performed in the minimalist and elegant style of the layout based deeply on quick functionality and intuitive navigation. What is more, users are provided with the variety of skins and can choose between dark, light and red skin depending on their personal taste and wishes. At the moment the app is presented in dark skin, but next update coming very soon will enable to activate any of the three palettes.

 

upper app UI design case study

 

User-friendly navigation, supported with slight eye-pleasing animation, will help users to focus on their tasks.  No ads, no complications, no extra copy, interface motivating to create short concise notes for the tasks – nothing will distract from the goals. Application provides the simple calendar, allows saving notes conveniently, check stats and plan anything from everyday stuff to business objectives.

 

upper app UI design case study

 

To get more information on design and interactions, you can also review the full presentation of Upper App design or check full pack of the details via Upper Press Kit


Welcome to see full presentation on Product Hunt

Welcome to download Upper App via App Store

Welcome to see the designs by Tubik Studio on Dribbble and Behance

design navigation UI UX tubik studio

UI/UX Design Glossary. Navigation Elements.

One of the basic features of product usability is thoughtfully created navigation. It doesn’t matter if the visual performance is creative, stylish, original, catchy and so on and so forth, in case the users don’t know where they are and how they could reach their goals with the website or app. Whatever is the reason that brings users to your digital product, the high level of respecting them means letting them know what is going on and where they are going at every step of interaction with it. Earlier we have already published the Glossary posts with key terms for the topics of usability and web design as well as business terms and abbreviations. This time the perspective will get focused on navigation aspect: let’s check out what parts and elements of the interface are responsible for this vital issue. 

 

Dribbble shot Tubik Studio

 

Navigation

 

In its basic meaning, the word navigation names the sphere of human activity responsible for enabling a vehicle to get from one place to the other, controlling and supporting this process. According to etymology dictionary, the term has deep roots and comes from the Latin word navigare «to sail, sail over, go by sea, steer a ship,» which in its turn is based on two words: navis «ship» and agere «to set in motion, drive, drive forward». So, to navigate is to make possible for someone or something to cover the planned route. This is the foundation from which the numerous meanings of this word took the start and adjusted in many other spheres.

 

In terms of user experience design, the concept of navigation is one of the basic notions setting the usability. Navigation, in this case, could be generally defined as the set of actions and techniques guiding users throughout the app or website, enabling them to fulfill their goals and successfully interact with the product. The aspect of efficient navigation has a great impact on setting positive user experience: users start using apps or websites with particular aims and expectations, and that’s designers’ task to set the best and easiest route to solving users’ problems.

 

The aspect of helpful and seamless navigation in UI should be thought-out from the early stages of creating the user interface. Users are navigated via interface with a number of interactive elements such buttons, switches, links, tabs, bars, menus, fields and the like, some of which will be described more in details below.

 

Here in Tubik we support the workflow in which all the basic navigation issues, such as layout, transitions, elements placement and functionality, are set in the early phase of UX wireframing and then checked with simple prototype to make sure all the important operations and options are clear for users. Neglecting this essential aspect sets high risks that all the other effort on design can be just wasted, so it’s much more user- and client-friendly to start with the basics.

 

Tubik Studio UI sketches

 

Menu

 

Menu is one of the core navigation elements. It is a graphical control that presents the options of interactions with the interface. Basically, it can be the list of commands — in this case, options will be presented with verbs marking possible actions like, for example, «save», «delete», «buy», «send» etc. Menu can also present the categories along which the content is organized in the given interface, and this can be the high time for using nouns marking them.

 

Menus can have different locations in the interface (side menus, header menus, footer menus etc.) and different ways of appearance and interaction (drop-down menus, drop-up menus, sliding menus etc.) Any solution, which designer makes about menu functionality, appearance and placement in general layout, should be based on thoughtful user research, analyzing not only potential wishes and expectations of the target audience but also their tech literacy and possible environments in which the digital product could be used. Well-designed menu can significantly speed up the process of achieving goals and satisfying needs that lay the solid foundation for positive user experience.

 

tubikstudio ui app design

 

Here is the example of mobile blogging app interface which features left-side menu presenting the categories of content. The copy describing positions in the menu is supported with icons presenting recognizable visual mark for the category.

 

mobile app design tubik studio

 

The presented app UI concept shows the type menu applying the effective technique of color marking: when users move to a particular category, the specific background color is used for all the content in it, which forms strong associations and quick perception of the nature and theme of data the user sees.

 

CTA

 

Behind the widely used abbreviation CTA, designers and content creators mean call to action. This is actually the word of phrase which stimulates users to interact with a product in a way and for the aim it is designed for. CTA elements are the interactive controls which enable users to do the action they are called to. Typical types of such interactive elements in the layout are buttons, tabs, or links.

 

In the interfaces of all kinds, CTA elements are the core factor of effective interaction with the product, which plays the crucial role in usability and navigability. When all the path of interaction and transitions is built clearly for users but CTA element is not thought-out, placed or designed well, users can get confused and will need to take additional effort trying to achieve their goals. That sets the high risk for poor conversion rate and general user experience. That’s why this navigation element should draw particularly deep designers attention. In any interface, it should be one of the most prominent and quickly noticeable parts to inform users how the product can be helpful or useful for them.

 

Contact List Concept Scrolls Tubik

 

As we mentioned in the article with tips on copy content in UI, some call-to-action elements may be represented with icons that don’t require copy using widely and instantly recognized images such as a telephone receiver for making a phone call or the envelope for opening received mail. The app interface presented above shows this case: the button with a receiver is the most prominent interactive element on the screen navigating user to achieving their goals with app quickly, and it doesn’t need the copy to let users understand what action can be done with it.

 

However, when the image of an icon is not so obvious or can be misleading, it is more effective to use double scheme, when the icon, button, or link is supported with the copy.

 

landing page UI design tubik studio

 

The example above features the landing page for a web platform devoted to cooking seafood. The headline of the page presents a call to action and immediately sets the theme by both verbal and visual means. Still, this call to action is not interactive. The active CTA elements are clickable buttons informing users that after clicking they can see more information on the particular topic or recipe. The bright color enhances visual hierarchy on the page and draws users’ attention to the key interactive zone.

 

Bar

 

Bar is a section of the user interface with clickable elements enabling a user to quickly take some core steps of interaction with the product or it can also inform the user on the current stage of the process. Among the basic types of bars, we could mention:

Tab bar — in mobile applications, it appears at the bottom of an app screen and provides the ability to quickly switch between different sections of an app.

 

tubik studio tapbar ui

 

Loading bar — the control informing user on the current stage of action, when the process is in active stage and user can see the flow via timing or percentage shown in progress.

 

tubik studio motion design

 

Progress bar — provides feedback on a result of the current process so far, for example, showing how much of the planned activity has been done.

 

juicy player UI Tubik Studio

 

Button

 

Button is, perhaps, one of the most popular elements of any interface. Button is the element which enables a user to get the appropriate interactive feedback from the system within a particular command. Generally speaking, button is a control with which user directly communicates to the digital product and sends the necessary commands to achieve a particular goal, like, let’s say, send the email, buy a product, download the data, turn on the player and tons of other possible actions. One of the reasons why buttons are so popular and user-friendly is that they efficiently imitate interaction with the objects in physical world.

 

Modern UI buttons demonstrate high diversity and can serve plenty of purposes. Typical and frequently used buttons which present an interactive zone, usually clearly marked out for visibility and having a particular geometric shape and often supported with the copy explaining what action will be fulfilled via this button. Designers usually apply considerable time and effort for creating effective and noticeable buttons that are harmonically added into general stylistic concept but are contrast enough to stand out in the layout.

 

tubik studio page 404

 

Besides, we could also mention several types of buttons with additional functionality, widely used in mobile and web interfaces.

 

Hamburger button — the button hiding the menu: clicking or tapping it, user sees the menu expanding. It is called so as its form consisting of three horizontal lines looks like typical bread-meat-bread hamburger. Nowadays it is a typical element of interaction, still highly debatable due to the number of pros and cons.

 

Most users who visit and use websites on the regular basis know that this button hides the core categories of data so this trick does not need additional explanations and prompts. Hamburger menus free the space making the interface more minimalist and full of air as well as allow massive saving place for other important layout elements. This design technique also provides additional benefits for responsive and adaptive design hiding navigation elements and making the interface look harmonic on different devices. Although hamburger menus still belong to highly debatable issues of modern web and app design, they are widely used. The arguments against hamburger menu are based on the fact that this design element can be confusing for people who do not use websites regularly and can get misled with the sign which features a high level of abstraction. So, the decision about applying hamburger button should be made after user research and definition of target audience’s abilities and needs.

 

tubik studio ice ui website

The presented website concepts uses hamburger button to hide the menu and support general minimalist approach to the visual performance of the layout.

 

Plus button — the button that being clicked or tapped presents the ability to add new content, be it a new contact, post, note, position in the list — anything user could do as the basic action with the digital product. Sometimes, tapping this button, users are directly transferred to the modal window of creating content, in other cases there is also a medium stage when they are given additional option to choose from and make adding the particular piece of data more focused.

 

tubik studio button ui

 

Here is the concept showing that plus button first enables a user to choose the category of the added content (image, video, text) and only then directs to the particular screen where it can be done. This practice takes seconds still makes experience more user-friendly as designers can present users with modified options of adding content for every particular case.

 

Share button — the button enabling a user to share the content or achievement directly to social networking accounts. In vast majority of cases, it is presented with icons which present a brand sign of particular social networks and are easily recognizable.

 

Switch

 

Switch is a control that enables users to switch the option on or off. Again, it is applied with the high level of efficiency and popularity in the modern interfaces because it presents the direct imitation of switches people are accustomed to in real life. The important point of consideration here is that states of the switch should be visibly clear and distinctive so that user could avoid applying effort to understand if the option is active or not. Various sorts of contrast and slight animation can solve the problem making the experience simple and user-friendly.

toonie switch UI animation

Here is the switch turning on and off the alarm in Toonie app. Animation makes the interaction smooth and natural, while changed color of the tab and the toggle transforming into spinning sun let users instantly understand whether the alarm is active. If you want to see the full case study on how this animated element was designed and developed, welcome to check the details here.

 

Picker

 

As it becomes clear from its name, picker allows users to pick the point from the row of options. It usually includes one or several scrollable lists of distinct values, for example, hours, minutes, dates, measurements, currencies etc. Scrolling the list, users choose and set the needed value. This type of interactive element is widely used in the interfaces which have the functionality of setting time and dates.

 

toonie UI animation

 

Checkbox

 

Checkbox is graphical UI element which is used to mark a particular piece of content, usually setting the choice for the binary options. It is another element setting the bridge with the real world as it looks really similar to the process of filling in tests, questionnaires and other stuff of this kind when you put a tick or color the box to mark the option. Checkboxes and switches can be found in any type of user interfaces, especially in the sections of the user, screen or page settings. Also, checkboxes present a common part of navigation in apps and websites with functionality of task managers, to-do lists, time trackers and the like.

 

todo list UI app tubik studio

 

Here’s the example of design concept for the mobile to-do app for complex tasks. Tapping the checkbox, users marks the task as done and it automatically gets faded, the copy is colored differently and the font gets bolder to support the contrast of this task with the ones which are still in progress.

 


 

Today’s set of our glossary is ready for those who need it and we are going to continue this practice before long. Don’t miss the new sets — the next one will continue the issues of navigation with deeper insights into types of menus and buttons, tags, breadcrumbs and icons. If there are any specific terms you would like to see explained, described and illustrated, feel free to contact via direct message in our Facebook page or Twitter as well as our Quora representative. New definitions are coming soon!

 

Recommended reading

 

Here is the set of recommended materials for further reading for those who would like to get deeper into this topic and learn more on the theme.

 

iOS Human Interface Guidelines

 

Navigation patterns for ten common types of websites

 

3 essential rules for effective navigation design

 

Perfecting navigation for the mobile web

 

Understanding Web UI Elements & Principles

 

User Interface Elements

 

The Most Creative Mobile Navigation Patterns

 

Basic Patterns for Mobile Navigation


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Welcome to read us on Quora

web design tubik studio

Tips on Applying Copy Content in User Interfaces

Words are a powerful weapon. They can bring both success and failure depending on how you put them together. They can motivate or confuse, strengthen or weaken, call or push away. That’s why designing a digital product, it’s vital to remember that high-quality copy is as essential as the details of visual performance.

 

In one of our previous articles, we’ve already considered the big role of textual content in UI design, covering the definition of copy and its functions in graphic user interfaces. The important point to remember from it here is the words cannot be fully replaced with the graphics whatever amazing, high-quality and professional they are going to be. Efficient and engaging copy content in user interfaces is defined by two equally significant basic criteria: the quality of writing and the appropriate look. Words and visual elements should mutually support each other, exist in harmony and provide organic consistency. So, every single piece of copy should be thoughtfully analyzed and created in a way corresponding to the general design concept and enhancing positive user experience via successful interaction. 

 

Could you imagine an interface containing badly-written copy with the same type sizes, fonts, and colors? The chances are big that it would cost users great effort to solve their problems or get needed information with the product, so they would simply choose other product that is more user-friendly and less time-consuming. Let’s check what types of copy content designers and copywriters deal with creating websites or mobile applications, and think over the points needing special attention.

 

copywriting tips

 

Visual hierarchy

 

To organize content in interfaces clearly for users, designers apply a well-known technique called visual hierarchy. It is initially based on Gestalt psychological theory and its main goal is to present the content on the carrier, be it a book page or poster, web page or mobile screen, in such a way that users can understand the level of importance for each element. It activates the ability of the brain to distinguish objects on the basis of their physical differences, such as size, color, contrast, alignment etc. In the aspect of creating copy content for web pages and mobile app screens, there are two aspects important to consider: page scanning patterns and typographic hierarchy. 

 

Understanding the importance of visual performance and readability of copy in digital products and its impact on user experience, numerous usability experts explore this issue comprehensively and collect statistics providing valuable data for designers. Lots of studies have shown that before reading a web page people scan it to get a sense of whether they are interested. According to different studies, including the publications by Nielsen Norman Group as one of the pioneers of this field, UXPin team and others, there are several popular scanning patterns for web pages, among which “F” and “Z” patterns.

 

F-pattern is referred to as the most common eye-scanning pattern, especially for web pages with big amount of content. A user first scans a horizontal line on the top of the screen, then moves down the page a bit and reads across the horizontal line which usually covers a shorter area. And the last one is a vertical line down on the left side of the copy where they look for keywords in the paragraphs’ initial sentences. It usually occurs on text-heavy pages like blogs, news platforms, thematic editorials etc. How could designers employ this knowledge? First of all, placing the information of key importance or core interest on the most scanned spots and trying to use short catching headlines and bold headers to draw users’ attention.

 

Z-pattern is applied to pages which are not so heavily concentrated on copy. A user first scans across the top of the page starting from the top left corner, looking for important information, and then goes down to the opposite corner at a diagonal, finishing with the horizontal line at the bottom of the page, again from left to right. This is a typical model of scanning for landing pages or websites not loaded with copy and not requiring scrolling down the page, which means that all the core data is visible in the pre-scroll area. In this case, designers place core information in the spots of highest attention, such as top corners, and put the other points requiring attention along the top and bottom lines.

 

website design tubik studio

The Big Landscape

 

Here we can see the design concept for a website which presents the online magazine «The Big Landscape». The interface is minimalist following the principles of clear visual hierarchy, good readability, intuitive navigation and aesthetic pleasure from visual perception. The designer followed Z-scanning-pattern placing vital elements such as the logo and CTA button in the corners of the top line while the bottom line informs users about the website creators and provides the ability to contact via social networks instantly.

 

Typographic hierarchy

 

Typographic hierarchy is a system that organizes copy content in the best way for users’ perception first of all via modifications and the combination of types and fonts. It is aimed at creating the contrast between the most meaningful and prominent copy elements which should be noticed first and ordinary text information. The contrast is created by regulating type fonts, sizes, and colors as well as their placement and alignment. Typographic hierarchy is presented with common types of copy content used in UI design.

 

Headlines

 

A headline is the first thing that users should see in any interface. It is a large, bold word or phrase which transfers and emphasizes the core informative message on the page. It’s essential for headlines to be catchy and short so that they could draw users’ attention, and meaningful in order to inform users about the theme and benefits of the content of the page or screen. According to the research published by one of the popular social media sharing platforms Buffer, the ideal length of the headline is 6 words; Jacob Nielsen provides the study at which shows that headlines of 5-6 work effectively, not less than extensive headlines presenting a full sentence. 

 

Another point to remember: it’s good when headline is visually supported by other elements on the page or screen, still it also should be understandable and meaningful without such context.

 

website design for photographers

Photography Workshops 

 

Here is the landing page for a company organizing photo tours and workshops for photographers. Functional and stylish minimalism is the basic approach behind the web interface. The bold headline is placed on the left which makes it noticeable but the major accent still remains on the head picture.

 

landing page UI design tubik studio

Website on cooking seafood

 

tubik_studio_website_ui_bakery

Vinny’s Bakery

 

These are two examples of the websites concentrated on providing content around the same theme — food. They both have minimalist design with centrally located headlines. However, the headlines differ with the message they send to the users as well as nature of the websites differs in its core: one of them stimulates uniting users around the action (cooking seafood) while the other is focused in presenting the goods (bread and bakery). The first example presents a website collecting recipes of meals with seafood from all over the world, so its headline contains a CTA with a key element — action verb in imperative form “Let’s cook!”, which dynamically tunes users into the activity. On the other hand, we can see another concept — a website for a small bakery selling homemade bread. The lyrical headline makes users feel warm, sets strong positive emotional connection and lets them instantly imagine the smell of bakery products which are sold via the website.

 

Subheaders

 

It’s impossible to put all the significant information in a headline, that’s why you need subheaders. These are brief, concise and catchy phrases that are similar to headlines, although they typically mark out the key points in separate sections while headlines summarize the theme or message of the whole page. Following the principles of visual hierarchy, fonts chosen for subheaders are usually smaller than for headlines but bigger than the rest of the copy. Traditionally, they are also bold and short. 

 

Landing Page Animation Tubik Studio

Organic — landing page

 

tubikstudio travel gear landing

Travel Gear Landing Page

 

Subheaders play a big role in landing page design. These two concepts for landing pages above are good examples of how subheaders inform users about the data provided in different sections. Bold subheaders point out the main idea of body copy helping users find the information they need easily and quickly.

 

Body copy

 

Body copy is usually a part of text presenting the description or some essential information placed in a compact block, usually under a subheader or a headline. Fonts are thinner and smaller than in headlines and subheaders, sometimes they are presented in italic for even more prominent visual contrast.

 

There is no unified opinion about the best length of body copy. Some content creators support the approach that long copy is more informative and serious-looking, while the others claim that only short copy is effective because Internet users never want to read too much. Here in Tubik we support the approach that the length of the effective and user-friendly copy depends directly on target audience: users, as well as products, are incredibly different, they have diverse preferences, goals and wishes when search for web resources or mobile apps. Both long and short copy have their own pros and cons, and each of them can be appropriate than depending on target audience of the product and its conversion goals.

 

Short copy is often effective for mobile interfaces and landing pages: their users are usually keen to see concise and highly informative copy content. Moreover, mobile interfaces have limited amount of space, so too much copy won’t look nice and will demand additional effort for reading, which can be the reason for poor user experience. Long copy is good for web resources that provide users with complex information on specific topics as well as presentation of the products which aren’t well-known for users and need additional informative support.

 

website design UI

Architecture Firm

 

Here is the example of a web page where long copy is useful. It’s a design concept featuring a website for architectural bureau following minimalistic and functional approach in creative practice and demonstrating it via website visual performance. The aim of such websites is to tell the company’s story, present professional level and achievements, so detailed copy works efficiently in this case.

 

tubik studio web ui design

Birds of Paradise Encyclopedia

 

This design concept also presents a website deeply based on the copy: it’s an educational project setting the online encyclopedia about the specific family of birds. Although it contains a great amount of information presented in text, this type of content is logically divided into many brief and concentrated copy blocks supported with prominent headlines as well as bright and catchy illustrations. This approach makes interaction with the website more dynamic which is especially effective for a teenage part of target readers that presumably often perceive encyclopedias as boring stuff.

 

tubik toonie help screens interaction

Toonie Alarm tutorial

 

As we mentioned above, short copy is useful for mobile interfaces since they are limited in space. The interface of brief tutorial for Toonie Alarm app demonstrates how copy is divided into short blocks in order to leave enough «air» on the screen and make copy readable.

 

Call-to-action elements with copy

 

The core elements that make UI interactive are those which contain a call-to-action (CTA). Some call-to-action elements may be represented with icons that don’t require copy using widely and instantly recognized icons such as a telephone receiver for a phone call or the envelope for mail. However, in cases when the image of an icon is not so obvious or can be misleading, it is more effective to use double scheme, when the icon, button, or link is supported with the copy.

 

The copy for call-to-action elements consists of one or two words or a linked phrase in a body copy. Verbs in the imperative form are one of the frequently applied mechanisms of engaging users.  Designers are recommended to use various techniques of creating contrast, first of all via color, in CTA elements, so that they could stand out in the layout and draw user’s attention quickly.

 

tubikstudio swiftybeaver landing

Landing page for SwiftyBeaver

 

travel agency website UI

Travel Agency Website

 

The CTA buttons on these two landing pages are both centrally located, although they employ different types of copy. The first one consists of the four-word-phrase, while the other applies only one word. However, both look good and work effectively since they both contain the verb in the imperative form and inform target audience about appropriate action solving their potential task on this website.

 

good_sign_app_tubikstudio

Good Sign App Concept 

 

This is a concept for an unusual Good Sign app that gives you a new sign to look for, and you make your wish every time you see it in real life. Such an extraordinary app has also unusual CTA buttons like “Make a wish”.

 

book swap app tubik studio

Book Swap App

 

There’s no need to create CTA buttons exceptionally in bright colors — their main task is to be easily noticeable in the general layout. If the interface is bright and colorful, why don’t you make the contrast with light background which will make bright copy even more prominent, like in a concept for the Book Swap app above?

 

Captions

 

Caption is the short text under a picture describing its content. In web interfaces fonts are usually small and often italic, and in mobile interfaces, the sizes of fonts depend on a size of a picture.

 

gym landing page fragment

Gym Landing Page

 

Here is a concept for the landing page of a gym. The captions here have bold fonts that make them easy to read. They are shown only when the picture is hovered which makes interaction more engaging for the users.

 

Points to consider

 

All in all, creating a quality copy content isn’t that hard if you keep in mind the typographic hierarchy principles. And here are some basic tips on presenting the copy:

 

  • Create catchy headlines. They draw users’ attention and often become the point of decision whether user continues interaction with the page or bounces it.
  • Make headlines short, but keep them highly informative. 
  • Subheaders relate to separate section, so they guide users through the content in the interface.
  • Use brief concise copy for mobile interfaces and landing pages.
  • Consider using long copy for web resources aimed at providing informative content.
  • Use verbs in the imperative form to encourage people to actions.
  • Use contrast colors for call-to-action elements, so that they could draw user’s attention more effectively. However, don’t forget to test readability of the text on the CTA elements: it has a crucial impact on usability and conversion rates.
  • A caption should preferably describe or add the data that isn’t obvious from the image.
  • Give strong preference to present tenses in captions.
  • Always ground your solutions on preliminary user research and don’t neglect testing different options.

 

Recommended reading

 

Here is the collection of recommended articles for further reading in case you would like to read more on the theme.

 

The 5 pillars of visual hierarchy in Web design

6 principles of visual hierarchy for designers

On Visual Hierarchy

F-Shaped Pattern For Reading Web Content

3 Design Layouts: Gutenberg Diagram, Z-Pattern, And F-Pattern

Effective Writing For Your UI: Things to Avoid

The Ideal Length of Everything Online, Backed by Research

Copywriting in UI. Words that Make Design Go Round.

 

Our next publication will continue the comprehensive theme of visual hierarchy and its effective practices in web and mobile interfaces. Don’t miss!


 

Welcome to see the designs by Tubik Studio on Dribbble and Behance

mobile application QA testing tubik studio

Precious Errors: Testing iOS Mobile Applications.

No doubt, mobile devices present an integral part of human life these days. Development of mobile applications demonstrates rocketing progress: they become a reliable helping hand for a person in the variety of life aspects, such as communication, business, entertainment and the like.

 

The simplicity of installing and usage is making mobile apps more and more popular and sets them apart from web applications. Still, it has to be noted that the former cannot fully replace the latter due to numerous reasons. Having discussed the issue with Tubik QA engineer Olga Krasnokutskaya, today we would like to review some benefits and features of testing iOS mobile apps.

 

testing

 

Types and features of testing mobile apps

 

No doubt, every case of creating a mobile application is a sort of unique story. It needs its own deep research and specific approach to design solutions and their realization in code. Still, there are some general schemes and methods that are applicable to most cases. Olga says that working on iOS apps she takes Mobile Testing Cheat Sheet as a basis and adapts it for every specific case. As we mentioned in the full guide to creating a mobile app, testing is one of the crucial phases: it helps to reveal bugs before the app is brought out to real users. Testing enables to understand the quality of the app and find the way to improve it via real interactions.

 

The main difference of a mobile application in comparison to a web app is the requirement of its installing on device which has a particular platform, OS version, screen size, and variety of functions the device is able to fulfill, such as making and receiving calls, texting, taking calls and doing loads of other operations simultaneously. Let’s review the types of testing deeper in detail.

 

Installation testing

This type of testing can be carried out both in simulators and real devices. However, here in Tubik testing on a variety of real devices is recommended as a more efficient method, because simulators do not reflect all the functionality of real devices and variety of possible users’ actions. For example, simulator in Xcode can give incorrect presentation of interface elements on the screen and doesn’t allow testing an accelerometer and a camera.

 

Updates testing

Testing doesn’t end when an app is launched and used by real users: it’s a never-ending journey. Another important type is testing updated versions of the app saving all the data.

 

For installation of the mobile app on the device, we use several services of app distribution such as HockeyApp, Fabric, TestFlight. Each of them has both benefits and drawbacks. For instance, Hockeyapp allows installation of different app versions, while Fabric provides installation of earlier versions of the app and then updating them with later versions saving the data. TestFlight is needed to release the app on AppStore and is convenient for testing new features as it uses production certificate which speeds up check of the new build and its release on AppStore.

 

mobile application testing

 

Compatibility testing

This type of testing enables to check if the unit of testing is correctly integrated on devices with different operation systems and on the screens of various resolutions. It’s also important to mention that, according to the latest requirements to app distribution via AppStore, any mobile app created for iPhones has to perform correctly on iPad.

 

Stress testing

One of the big advantages of the mobile application is the ability to use them “on the go”. However, this aspect determines a constant change of the Internet source and signal — GPRS/3G/4G/WiFi; users can interact with the application in conditions of good or bad connection, repetitive disconnection, Plane mode. Incoming calls and messages, device locking, limited memory available, battery charge level or accidental taps – all those things can have a great influence on the app performance. Creative approaches to testing of this kind in maximum diversity of cases is highly recommended.

 

Functionality testing

This type checks the feasibility of functional requirements. Testing the functions of the app, it’s advisable for QA specialist to create test-cases or detailed check-lists. The documentation of this sort can be helpful for the team in defining possible “weak spots” even at the early stage when project requirements are analyzed.

 

Gesture testing

Gestures present the core distinctive feature of mobile apps in comparison with web apps. Naturally, this difference of interactions advances specific demands to designers, developers and QA engineers working over the product. Gesture testing checks the operability for the variety of gestures such as touch, swipe, tap, multi-touch, 3D-touch, turn, shake etc.

 

Multitasking testing

This sort of testing is aimed at correct app performance under conditions of several active apps on the background or when the tested app is minimized. Considering the specific nature and features of the device, the application should perform adequately in case of an incoming call or screen lock, without crashing or losing data.

 

Localization testing

Another aspect to be checked is localization, in particular the format of dates and time, translation, UI adaptation etc. What makes a real difference in comparison with testing this aspect for web applications is the screen size of a mobile device. On the one hand, the content in different languages should occupy the same place on the screen to save the style and visual consistency; on the other hand, it has to be adapted considering specific features of a particular country. For example, the content for the Arab countries has to be reflected in an inverted manner and requires other sizes of buttons due to specific nature of their writing.

 

Usability testing

Mobile applications for iOS have to comply with iOS Human Interface Guidelines to get to the AppStore. Basically, it has to be convenient for the user to read and use the app using one hand which means that the content and fonts have to adapt to the screen size. It’s also important to check that users understand the warnings and notifications about errors.

 

Testing mobile applications is mostly handled in environments and conditions which are maximum close to real life when there are several background active apps and actively used devices with a variety of settings, apps and cash data. It’s also highly advisable to remember — or it’s even better to create a detailed check-list – about the system settings of the device used for this aim, to avoid some unwanted cases, like, for example, activation of saving mode right in the process of the test.

 

The time-consuming aspects of app testing are imitation of incoming calls and SMS, inputting long texts, creating videos for bug-reports, handling tests on every kind of real device.

 

testing digital product

 

Tubik QA engineer Olga says that knowledge on the variety of test types, their benefits and pitfalls, tools and types of devices is an issue of great impact, still practice plays an even bigger role for performing high-quality tests of mobile applications for iOS. It’s not reasonable to state that having a considerable experience in testing web applications, QA specialist will easily plan and accomplish mobile app testing. Certainly, there are basic methods and principles which mostly deal with functionality, still, nothing can work better than practical experience, enabling a tester to reveal more bugs in the process of mobile app development in the future. We have to remember that the price of the error found before the release is much lower for the client than the one found after launching the product. Another aspect to consider is that it’s impossible to reveal all the potential errors due to the massive amount of incoming data in terms of limited time. That is when theory becomes a great help for QA specialists because it lets them to reduce the number of test cases via using the established techniques and methods with saving the necessary test covering.


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