Tag Archives: color psychology

user motivation design

Two Types of User Motivation: Design to Satisfy.

No doubt, every designer — as well as any creative person — wishes to make something desired by lots of users, preferably on a regular basis. There is a group of creators who claim that they are interested in the process or the fact of creation and don’t care about the further life of the product, still, it’s incredibly tiny if compared to the number of people who want to see the results of their creative work usable, useful and regularly used. One of the key factors to achieve this goal is knowing the final users and ways to motivate them. So, today let’s take another little journey to the psychology of users, this time concentrating on types of motivation and their influence on design solutions.

 

What is motivation?

 

Basically, motivation is the term coming from psychology and dealing with behavior. This concept describes something that makes people do particular actions giving specific reasons for these actions or needs. Motivation is the force that gives people motives, defined in Merriam-Webster dictionary as «something (as a need or desire) that causes a person to act». According to professor of psychology J. Nevid, «The term motivation refers to factors that activate, direct, and sustain goal-directed behavior… Motives are the «whys» of behavior — the needs or wants that drive behavior and explain what we do. We don’t actually observe a motive; rather, we infer that one exists based on the behavior we observe.» (Nevid J., Psychology: Concepts and applications. 2013)

 

Motivation appears on the crossroads of biological, cognitive, social and emotional factors, that all together influence its strength and behavior it stimulates. Three basic features which could describe the motivation of any kind are the following:

  • Activation — the decision to activate the particular type of behavior, often stimulated by formulating a particular goal or achievement
  • Persistence — the power of effort which is taken in short-term or long-term perspective to achieve a particular goal
  • Intensity — the level of concentration and desire applied by a person to achieve the goal

 

Why is it important for designers to understand the types and mechanisms of motivation? Because it shows the direct way how to make the product correspondent to users’ expectations and solving users’ pains. The product, which is designed, can be extremely helpful, but to learn that, the user should be motivated to try. And design, being the part of the product, which is both functionally and emotionally appealing, is the first and powerful way to give a user the reason to try the app or website.

 

UI design product management

 

Two basic types of motivation

 

There are two major directions of how motivation evolves and they deeply influence the decision-making process. In short, they are based on what is the source when «Why would I do that?» appears and encourages us to act: some of these reasons come from the outer world while the others are found inside ourselves. On that ground, psychologists define extrinsic and intrinsic motivation.

 

Extrinsic motivation

 

This term unites the group of factors that come from outer sources. These motives can come from family, professional environment, competitions, contests etc. The motives of this sort encourage the person to deal with the outer world of other people as there is no other way to achieve the particular goals. It means that they involve the diversity of social reasons as well as stereotypes. Cultural background, age and gender, level of education, country of residence, religion and family status — these and many other factors can form and correct the reasons coming from outside and motivating people to communicate and behave this or that way. In the vast majority of cases, extrinsic motivation is a seek of reward, which can be tangible (money, prizes, diplomas, certificates, trophies, medals etc.) and intangible (praise, support, recognition etc.). The situation of competition itself presents the strong extrinsic motive: some of us are more motivated with not the prize we get but purely with the understanding that we won the others. Moreover, this factor can become even stronger in the case when there is direct support from others like friends or followers.

 

These factors should be the object of thorough research for UX designers as they actually present the doors opening the digital products to the world. The motivation via rewards has been widely used in all the kinds of games — without it for many users, a game usually doesn’t make sense — it should present the real goal which is achievable and stimulates persistence in the process of getting it. The wide invasion of the internet technologies and social networking added the element of constant competition with others strengthening the power of outer sources of motivation.

 

However, this mechanism of attracting and retaining users is applied in the variety of digital products now, including those which are far from games in their traditional understanding. When you are marked as the most loyal customer or are promised to be given a discount in case of the particular purchase; when you get the certificate via the online educational platform of which you can boast to you friends via social networks; when you are marked as the top writer or top contributor on the blog platform, and so on so forth — all that stuff presents the signs of extrinsic motivation. And that’s not bad: that’s just the way to make specific activities reasoned, which is crucial for most users. The trick is to find which reason works for this particular audience.

 

snake battle app UI design

Snake Battle App based on the extrinsic motives of winning the battle and getting rewards

 

Intrinsic Motivation

 

This is another side of the coin: that set of motives and stimuli comes out from the inner world of the person. These are the motives which are formed by the wishes and needs the person has due to its intelligence, soul, and heart. These are the motives which can be much harder to find and understand, but much longer to work successfully.

 

Intrinsic motivation is the inner engine moving a person to self-improvement whatever it could mean. In fact, people are born with this need and wish, which gets the higher level of development when the person satisfies basic needs like food and shelter and goes to the next stages in the hierarchy of needs. It’s natural for us to wish trying new things, to accept new challenges, to try our own abilities and gifts, to feel satisfaction from getting new knowledge and mastering new skills. This type of motivation is often stronger than the previous as it comes from what nature the person has and what personal likes or dislikes move decision-making process. In everyday terms, we often call this type of motivation «interest» or «desire» which becomes a significant factor for retaining users. And it’s a well-known factor that the simple explanation: «I do it just because it’s interesting» is one of the strongest motives which can only exist. It moves the user to act because of the subject of the activity itself rather than reward or recognition.

 

underwater world encyclopedia design tubik

Underwater World Encyclopedia based on intrinsic motive of getting new knowledge

 

wedding planner app UI design

Wedding Planner based on the intrinsic motive to optimize personal effort in organization of the event 

 

toonie alarm UI design

Toonie Alarm combining intrinsic motive (getting up on time) and extrinsic motive (getting stickers as rewards)

 

Getting the knowledge about target audience at the stage of user research, designers can analyze which types of motives and which their combinations will work for the specific users.

 

Intrinsic_extinsic_motivation_by_IDF

 

The visual presentation of two major motivation types by experts from Interaction Design Foundation 

 

Building motivation with design

 

Knowledge on the mechanisms of motivation can become the great help for UI/UX designers and information architects. The advantage of providing appropriate motives for the target audience can be applied at the levels of:

— thinking over the clear application or website structure and organization of triggers and informational blocks supported with rigorous user research

— building navigation and call-to-action elements according to things which engage users motivating them to act

— creating appropriate layout demonstrating key benefits or rewards

— providing supportive onboarding process motivating to try the product and test its functions

— presenting visual design solutions appealing to the target audience and adding the motive of aesthetic satisfaction

— including the copy which stimulates users, describes the key benefits of the product, the achievements users can get and support available in the process of interaction

— adding the features of setting short-term and long-term goals

— enabling users to share their achievements via various social networks — approval and praise of virtual communities is the powerful extrinsic motive nowadays.

 

user motivation design

Upper App using the mechanism of intrinsic motivation to boost users’ productivity

 

The bottom line is simple here: if you want users to like and use your product, give them a reason to love it. They will start their journey with «Why?» and will repeat that question regularly at different levels of interaction — so get prepared to show them the answer.


Welcome to see the designs by Tubik Studio on Dribbble and Behance

color psychology in design

Color in Design: Influence on Users’ Actions.

Every single day we’re surrounded by various colors from everywhere. If you take a closer look at the things around, they may surprise you with a number of colors and shades. People may not notice how colorful everyday things are but the colors have the significant impact on our behavior and emotions. Today our article is devoted to the science studying this issue called color psychology. Let’s define the meaning of the colors and review some tips on choosing suitable colors for the design.

 

tubik studio design

 

What is color psychology?

 

It’s a branch of psychology studying the influence of colors on human mood and behavior. The thing is that our mind reacts on colors while we usually do not notice it. The moment our eyes perceive a color, they connect with the brain which gives signals to the endocrine system releasing hormones responsible for the shifts in mood and emotions. These days a lot of research is conducted in order to study the peculiarities of these reactions and there are already many theories useful to learn. Color psychology is helpful in many industries including business, marketing, and design.

 

The success of the product depends largely upon the colors chosen for the design. The properly selected colors help put users in the frame of mind that compels them to take action. The research provided by Colorcom showed that it takes only 90 seconds for people to make a subconscious judgment about a product and between 62% and 90% of that assessment is based on color alone. So, the basic knowledge of color psychology can be useful on the way of improved conversion for your product. Moreover, accurately chosen colors can advance usability of the product.

 

Meaning of colors

 

To convey the right tone, message and call users to make the expected action, designers need to understand what colors mean and what reaction they evoke. In one of our previous articles, we’ve demonstrated you the list of colors with brief descriptions of their meanings. Today we have prepared a bit more expanded list of color meanings in common use and in design.

 

Red

The color usually associates with passionate, strong, or aggressive feelings. It symbolizes both good and bad states of mind and soul including love, confidence, passion and anger. In design, the use of red color is an effective way to draw users’ attention. Also, it’s recommended to use red sparingly to avoid the negative reactions.

 

toonie alarm mascot design tubik studio

Toonie Alarm app tutorial

 

Orange

It is an energetic and warm color bringing the feelings of excitement. Orange combines red’s power and yellow’s friendliness, so it may bring feelings of motivation, enthusiasm, and love to life. Designers use the color if they need to give the spirit of creativity and adventure.

 

logo design tubik studio

fOxygenic Logo

 

Yellow

This is the color of happiness which symbolizes the sunlight, joy, and warmth. Yellow is thought to be the easiest color to visibly see. What’s more, it has one of the most powerful psychological meanings. Users seeing yellow colors in the design can feel the inspiration and confidence. Although, you need to remember that too much yellow may bring negative reactions such as the feeling of anxiety or fear.

 

stardust_bikers_webpage_ui_tubik_studio

StarDust website

 

Green

It’s often called the color of nature, balance, and harmony. Green brings calming and renewing feelings. Also, it is a sign of growth and inexperience. It has more positive energy than most other colors but sometimes it associates with materialism. Design in green colors perfectly suits to the products connected with nature.

 

Big_city_guide_Stockholm_tubik

Big City Guide: Stockholm

 

Blue

It often represents some corporate images since the blue is the color of trust. It usually shows reliability, may give users calming feelings. However, as a cool color, it also associates with distance and sadness, so designers need to keep it in balance.

 

design_for_business_tubik_studio_book

Design for Business E-book

 

Purple

Long associated with royalty and wealth since many kings wore purple clothes, it’s useful for presenting some luxurious products. It’s also a color of mystery and magic. It mixes the energy of red and blue, so it has a balance of power and stability. A big concentration of the color may distract users’ mind.

 

night_in_berlin_event_list_ui_tubik

Night in Berlin App

 

Pink

It is the color of hope, sensitivity, and romance. Pink is much softer than red, so it creates the sense of unconditional love. Pink is associated very strongly with youthful femininity, so it may be an effective color if the target audience is mostly girls and young women.

 

tubik studio app design

Dating App

 

Brown

The color of security and protection like the mother Earth. Designers commonly use brown as a background color in a variety of shades, from very light to deep. It brings the feeling of warmth and comfort to the designs. Also, it may be used to show the experience and reassurance.

 

jewellery_e-commerce_app_concept_by_tubik

Jewelry E-Commerce App

 

Black

The color has a great number of meanings. It associates with tragic situations and death. It signifies a mystery. It can be traditional, modern, serious. Everything depends on how you employ it and which colors go with it. Black matches well with any other color, so it’s ideal for the background. Designers often use it to set contrasts.

 

Bakery website animation

Vinny’s Bakery

 

White

The color means purity and innocence, as well as wholeness and clarity. White often associates with a blank sheet of paper motivating people to generate new ideas. However, too much white can cause the feelings of isolation and emptiness. In design, white is commonly used as the background color especially for the resources for which readability is a vital part.

 

tubikstudio ui animation website design

Bjorn website

 

Color meanings in branding

 

Colors are a vital factor for not only the visual appearance of products but also brand recognition. Nevertheless, in branding, colors tend to have more direct meanings than in common understanding. They can be briefly described within a few words, so here is the list for you:

 

  • Red. Confidence, youth, and power.
  • Orange. Friendly, warm, and energetic.
  • Yellow. Happiness, optimism, and warmth.
  • Green. Peace, growth, and health.
  • Blue. Trust, security, and stability.
  • Purple. Luxurious, creative, and wise.
  • Black. Reliable, sophisticated, and experienced.
  • White. Simple, calm, and clean.

 

realli_logo_animation_tubik

Realli logo animation

 

Color Preferences

 

Visual perception is quite individual for everyone. Designers need to remember that the color effects may be different because of the factors such as age, culture, and gender. First of all, people’s preferences can shift during the life whatever the object is, let’s say, food, clothes, music, colors and plenty of other aspects. It is caused by both mental and physical changes that happen to us across the lifetime. For example, children like yellow color pretty much, but as we become adults it usually seems less attractive. Faber Birren explains it in his work Color Psychology and Color Therapy: “With maturity comes a greater liking for hues of shorter wavelength (blue, green, purple) than for hues of longer wavelength (red, orange, and yellow)”. One more difference between children’s perception and adult is that kids can change their favorite colors fast, while adult color preference is usually non-malleable.

 

Also, designers need to consider that there are many cultural differences and color perception is not an exception. Sometimes cultures define colors diversely, for example, in Western countries, white color means happiness and purity, while in some Asian countries it symbolizes death. You can find many examples of how different may the meanings be in countries but it would take a whole article to tell about it, so if you’re interested in the topic, follow our updates on the blog since the post on this issue is coming soon.

 

Another point on the color preferences is gender. Many color studies have been done over the years and a lot of them say that the color preferences of women and men significantly differ. The Color Assignment group has conducted a deep research on this topic and many designers already use the results in the creative process. We’ve defined the most notable things from the research to share with you.

 

Blue is the top color. Both men and women of all ages think of blue as the favored color.The shades of blue such as cerulean, azure, beryl, cornflower blue, and sapphire are popular among women.

 

Brown and orange are in dislike. The first one considered less favorable among men, the second — among women.

 

Cool colors are preferred. Men and women favor blue, green and their tints in general.

 

Women like tints. When men prefer pure or shaded colors, ladies are good with tints.

 

Men prefer achromatic colors. White, black and gray are neutral colors and men are keen to choose them.

 

Favorite colors

 

favorite color on gender

 

Least favorite colors

 

least-fav-colors-gender

 

Source of charts

 

It’s vital to consider color preferences of the target audience while creating UI and UX design since it helps to avoid negative reactions and associations.

 

Points to consider

 

Color psychology is rather complex to understand and learn. However, it may become an efficient tool in designers’ hands helping to understand users and their demands. Summarizing the article, here is the list of useful things to consider:

 

  • Choose the colors wisely. They have a deep influence on the users.
  • Make sure your design and its colors convey the right message and tune.
  • Learn your target audience. The color preferences and meanings depend on many factors including age, gender, and culture.
  • Some colors may look different on the screens of different devices. Additional testing never hurts.
  • It may be a good idea to test the UI colors with representatives of the target audience.
  • Try to make the color combinations wisely, in the best way for the users’ perception.

 

Recommended reading

 

Here are some books and articles we could recommend for those who would like to get deeper into the topic:
 

Responding To Color

 

Birren, Faber., Color Psychology and Color Therapy.

 

Color Theory for Designers, Part 1: The Meaning of Color

 

Color Associations

 

Why Color Matters

 

The Psychology of Color in Marketing and Branding

 


Welcome to see the designs by Tubik Studio on Dribbble and Behance