Tag Archives: tubikstudio

web development and programming

Back-End Development. Foundation of Digital Product.

Seeing an elegant building, we often don’t even imagine that its shape, height and loads it carries are possible due to solid and powerful foundation hidden from the field of vision. The same happens with digital products: when we open the website that downloads the history of our interactions with it in split seconds, or set the application connecting us with friends and saving our data on any device, when we do simple everyday operations like sending emails or downloading files, most of us don’t know that those interactions are possible due to back-end development which establishes the foundation for effective front-end and enables steady functionality of websites and applications.

 

A lot of internet users and clients ordering services for creating a website or an app think that web development is one-stage process. In fact it is divided into two parts: front-end and back-end development, and for people standing far from this sphere of professional activity, it might be really hard to understand the difference. In our previous articles we have already described general directions of web development and gave a closer review of front-end development issues. Today the theme we raise deals with back-end development, its essence, tools and specific nature.

 

What is back-end development?

 

In general terms, a website or dynamic web application is a number of files containing structure, design, content, and functionality. The technologies and codes that enliven a site, the area of web development which  makes the site run invisibly to users is called back-end. It consists of the server, the database, and the server-side applications. Back-end is the far side of the webpage or screen functionality; to set the analogy, it could be imagined as the brain or the engine of a website or app.

 

For example, when users navigate their web browser to http://tubikstudio.com/, they actually turn to the server where Tubik Studio website files are located and send a request to see them. It should be also noted that loading a website, users aren’t looking at that website directly on the server. The server sends the files to the web browser, which then looks at them locally, on user’s computer. In fact, back-end sets the basis on which front-end development is able to come into play. Back-end developer programs core computational logic of the system including software, website and information.

 

back end development programming

 

What are the objectives of back-end?

 

The key tasks of back-end are accessing the data that users request through the web browser or app, combining and transforming it, and returning the data in its processed form to the requester.

 

Accessing the data that users request
Any time of day or night, there’s always the chance that users will ask for data surfing the website or using the app. Taking it into consideration, back-end should be available on demand being ready to react and respond users’ requests.

 

For practical situation, let’s imagine someone launches an e-commerce startup before their website or app is prepared for a considerable number of users to log in and shop, especially in high season of celebrations like Halloween or Christmas campaigns. In this case the launch is done on shaky ground. What will happen? One day, the website or app will crash. Make no mistake, not being able to get the respond from the website, users will get angry and quickly find deals from the competitors. This is how the invisible foundation of back end directly supports not only digital product, but far more — brands, companies and clients.

 

Back-end always works with data. Developer has to understand it is vital for back-end to be developed on the basis of security practices. This is even more significant when the data interacts with secure information, such as medical, personal, or financial data.

 

Combining and transforming the data
The data that is required for website or app can come from a variety of sources called databases. The task of back-end is finding information the user needs within the databases, which contain enormous amounts of data, and then combine it in a way that provides useful and required results.

 

Imagine that someone downloads the app for travelling or opens the website aimed at this theme and wants to know how to arrive to a particular destination. The website or app will need to get access to the information from the city transport databases, taxi companies, Google Maps and so on and so forth.

 

What happens if the questions, which back-end has to respond, change over time? The structure of back-end is always optimizable which means that developers will be able to respond new requests within its code.

 

Returning the data
Eventually, as soon as back-end gathers and combines all the requested information, the data should be sent to the user. How many internet users can read the information in code produced for back-end? Perhaps, a small handful of chosen. What should others do? To solve this problem, here come the famous APIs playing the role of back-end “translators” transforming pure code into a language legible and edible for humans.

 

For the efficiency of a digital product performance, it is perfect when web designers, front-end developers and back-end developers can work together from the earliest stages of any project and have a constant feedback loop. It provides the ability to choose the best design and development solutions and techologies so that the final result could look great and operate properly.

 

What is the structure of back-end?

 

Back-end includes three parts: server, databases, and APIs.

 

The server is a computer, a device or a program whose purpose is managing network resources and data.

 

web development

 

Alternatively referred to as a databank or a datastore, and sometimes abbreviated as DB, a database is a big amount of indexed digital information. It can be searched, referenced, compared, changed or manipulated with optimal speed and minimal processing expense.

 

APIs (Application Programming Interfaces) are the tools that transport the data sent from back-end to front-end of the website or app. This data, in particular, can include elements of the layout such as buttons, menus, controls, tabs, images, copy, etc.

 

Back-end presents a combination of the databases and the applications written in a server-side language running on the servers.

 

Server-side languages

 

PHP. It is an HTML-embedded scripting language. The main aim of the language is to allow creating dynamically generated pages quickly. PHP is easy to install and deploy, it is staying competitive with lots of modern frameworks, and is the foundation for a number of content-management systems (CMS). PHP powers famous web sites and platfroms such as WordPress, Wikipedia, Facebook etc.

 

Python. It is an interpreted, object-oriented, high-level programming language with dynamic semantics. This programming language is fast, making it effective for getting things to market quickly. Python is simple; its syntax is easy-to-learn, readable and therefore reduces the cost of program maintenance. It is the oldest of the scripting languages, and often referred to as powerful and effective. Python powers famous sites such as YouTube, Google, The Washington Post etc.

 

Java. It is a programming language designed for use in the distributed environment of the Web. Java is similar to C++ language, but it is simpler to use than the latter and enforces an object-oriented programming model. It can be used to create complete applications that may run on a single computer or be distributed among servers and clients in a network. Java powers famous sites such as Twitter, Verizon, AT&T, Salesforce.

 

Ruby. It is dynamic, open source programming language with a focus on simplicity and productivity. Great for building complicated logic on the database side of a website, Ruby connects the back-end and database functionality that PHP and SQL can offer. It is characterized as the language of easy maintenance and high-traffic demands. Ruby powers famous sites such as Hulu, original version of Twitter, Living Social, Basecamp etc. Moreover, the framework Ruby on Rails for this programming language has extensive libraries which support higher level of flexibility for developer in the process of creating code for particular aims.  Here in Tubik we also use this programming language as the basis for back-end development.

 

C#. It is type-safe, object-oriented language that enables developers to build a variety of secure and robust applications that run on the .NET Framework. C# can be used to create Windows client applications, XML Web services, distribute components, client-server applications, database applications, etc. It also can be used to build iOS and Android mobile apps with the help of a cross-platform technology like Xamarin.

 

С++. It is an enhanced C language typically used for object-oriented programming. C++ is effective for complex applications also built on the .NET Framework.

 

Erlang. It is a general-purpose programming language. Erlang has built-in support which increases its level of competitiveness and distribution. It is used in several large telecommunication systems from Ericsson.

 

Server-side frameworks

 

ASP.NET. It is an open source web framework for building modern web apps and services with .NET. It creates websites based on HTML, CSS, and JavaScript that are simple, fast, and can scale to millions of users.

 

Ruby on Rails. It is an open source Ruby language framework for developing database-backed web applications. Ruby on Rails is also full-stack framework which includes everything needed to create a database-driven web application, using the Model-View-Controller pattern.

 

Django. It is a high-level Python language web framework that encourages rapid development and clean, pragmatic design. Django is also free and open source.

 

Node.js. It is a JavaScript runtime built on Chrome V8 JavaScript engine. Here are some examples of Node.js frameworks:

  • Hapi.js
  • Socket.io
  • Express.js
  • Mojito
  • Meteor
  • Derby
  • Mean.js
  • Sails.js
  • Koa.js
  • Total.js

 

Relational database management systems (RDBMS)

 

In order to work properly, every website needs a database to store its code, images, files and other data. The following relational database management systems (RDBMS) are the most popular for web-based applications:

  • MySQL
  • PostgreSQL
  • MongoDB
  • Microsoft SQL Server
  • Oracle
  • Sybase
  • SAP HANA
  • IBM DB2

 

web development

 

Let’s draw up the balance. Front-end is the part of the website or app which users see and interact with. Back-end is the engine behind the interface, allowing data validation, processing and storing.

 

Recommended reading

 

Server-Side Scripting: Back-End Web Development Technology

 

Web Development. Basics of the Job.

 

3 Web Dev Careers Decoded: Front-End vs Back-End vs Full Stack

 

The Languages and Frameworks You Should Learn in 2016

 

I Don’t Speak Your Language: Frontend vs. Backend

 

Basics of Back-End Development

tubik studio free ebook design for business

Design for Business. Free E-Book by Tubik Team.

Designers are often people involved directly into business processes via their job. Knowing basics of this field makes a designer stronger and more productive in terms of the objectives set for particular projects. This sort of knowledge gets a designer closer to both client and final user of the digital product. With our experience, we would like to share ideas and thoughts on the theme, for the sake of global design community creating more and more products both user-friendly and solving business tasks. In this first issue of Tubik Magazine, the collection of free e-books on design issues, readers are offered the set of basic business terms defined and analyzed in the aspect of design.

 

Hopefully, it will be useful to build successful and productive strategies both for designers working for business and e-commerce and business people wishing to get more about design techniques and their impact on business processes. Enjoy reading and feel free to share the book with those whom it may concern.

 

 

To download the book in PDF, welcome here


Welcome to see the designs by Tubik Studio on Dribbble and Behance

ios development tubik swift objective-c

Swift or Objective-C? Tool Tips for iOS Developers.

In creative process, there are always some points of choice and contradictions. While UX designers are debating about Photoshop vs Sketch theme and give their opinions on efficient prototyping tools, iOS developers also have their own big debate. Today we are going to pitch in and add some of our thoughts to this global discussion of which programming language is better, Objective-C or Swift. We asked Tubik CTO and experienced iOS developer Maria Nazarenko to share her opinion with Tubik Blog readers.

 

Brief background

 

Let’s start with a tiny bit of history. The first and therefore the eldest in the discussed pair of programming languages was Objective-C. Primarily it saw the light of the day in early 1980s and was created by Brad Cox. So, one of the points that could be definitely applied to this programming language is that it’s really tried-and-true and tested by several generations of developers.

 

At the moment Objective-C is commonly described as the general-purpose, object-oriented programming language adding Smalltalk-style messaging to the C programming language. Before Swift came into play, Objective-C had been the main programming language used by developers for OS X and iOS operating systems, and their APIs.

 

Swift, introduced at Apple’s 2014 WWDC, brought its own dose of revolution. In general description, Swift is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm, compiled programming language broadening the previous scope of operating systems as it was developed for iOS, OS X, watchOS, tvOS, and Linux. Swift was designed to enable work with Apple’s Cocoa and Cocoa Touch frameworks as well as the large body of Objective-C code already written for Apple products.

 

Initially Swift was intended to be more resilient and safer than Objective-C, and also more concise and developer-friendly. It was built with the LLVM compiler framework including in Xcode 6 and using the Objective-C runtime library that enables C, Objective-C, C++ and Swift code to run within one program.  Therefore, it enhaces broadening professional horizons for developers making their work more efficient.

 

That was the milestone when developers started their discussion of what is better, tradition or innovation.

 

tubik ios development

 

What is better: Objective-C or Swift?

 

Some time ago expressing our opinion in the hot global discussion about the choice between Photoshop and Sketch we mentioned: “The answer we would like to give is really simple. There is no any vs. There shouldn’t be any war between the options which can complement each other. Obviously, now there is no any perfect and ideal software for design: if it existed, everybody would use only this ideal choice and there wouldn’t be any need for fight.»

 

It seems that in iOS development the situation of today is really similar. The choice is not so obvious as it could seem even after reading about all the extended functionality of Swift in comparison with Objective-C. In practice Objective-C is checked and tested over the years while Swift is young and new. Huge bulk of products have been developed in Objective-C so transition to the other perspective is definitely taking some time and effort.

 

Briefly characterizing the programming languages according to her extended practical experience in iOS development, Tubik CTO Maria mentions that although Objective-C is older and common, Swift could be described as more simple in syntax and stable in work process.

 

Swift Objective-C development tubik

 

Which programming language is more useful to know?

 

Due to Xcode which is the integrated developing environment (IDE) with a set of software development tools iOS developers can work applying either Objective-C or Swift in fact using the same developer tool.

 

As long as Objective-C exists much longer, it’s natural that plenty of simple and complex applications have already been accomplished with this language. Not knowing Objective-C and starting straight from Swift can limit developer’s professional flexibility. It can be especially obvious in case when developers have to update existing products.

 

Sometimes it happens that developers, knowing only Swift, recommend to rewrite existing (perhaps big or even huge) piece of code from Objective-C to Swift, the customers logically do not see this acceptable and certainly do not accept the necessity to pay for this work.

 

Considering this, the best option is knowing both languages. That gives developers natural professional flexibility for any task and environment they have to tackle with in current projects. There are two strategies which mostly depend on the time available.

 

In case if there is considerable amount of time between studying basics and applying them into real practice, our advice is to start with Objective-C. Although it is often described as more complicated, it establishes a solid foundation of basic principles and routine of creating applications for and using iOS system. On this basis, learning another iOS language such as Swift which is syntactically simpler will not seem too hard.

 

However, there can be also another strategy, a bit more dynamic than the previous one and applicable for those who don’t have enough time in their disposal needing to start actual work asap. In this case, you can start with Swift as it is easier in syntax and more similar to other programming languages so it will take less time to start practical coding. Getting the basics of development in this way, don’t forget to add Objective-C to the practice and polish skills in both languages. It will definitely give result if approached thoughtfully and rigorously.

 

iOS development swift objective-c

 

Here in Tubik Studio we believe that the only single thing that a designer and developer should think about is the high quality of the final product. The highest. Quality. Possible. Period.

 

Any tool and method chosen for this aim is a good way as long as it provides the efficient product to the client and the final user.

 

Don’t miss our next articles on iOS development giving practical tips and case studies of coding complex design decisions.


Welcome to see designs by Tubik Studio on Dribbble and Behance

Case study Ribbet Designing illustration

Case study: Ribbet. Designing illustration.

It is not a secret that the fast-paced and dynamic development of web and app design brings new trends into other spheres of creativity in non-stop mode. No doubt, illustration is one of the fields which is constantly and significantly affected by all the numerous changes and currents in the Web. Working on different projects and preparing various shots for Dribbble and Behance, Tubik Studio designers get regularly updated on how multipurpose and versatile can illustration be. So, today we would like to present you the new case study, this time about illustration for a web online editing service.

 

Earlier we have already presented here the case study telling about creation of a logo for the on-line editor Ribbet by Tubik Studio designer Arthur Avakyan. This article continues telling about the collaboration with the same customer. This time the assingment was concentrated on illustrations for the site created by the other designer Evgeniy Tomashevsky.

 

Tubik Studio designer

Evgeniy Tomashevsky working on sketches

 

Task

Designing thematic illustrations for the specific feature of online photo editor Ribbet.

 

Tools

Pencil sketching, Adobe Illustrator

 

Process

Undoubtfully, most — if not all — the illustrations in the web fulfill several functions instead of one. They should be not only decorative stuff but can also become important features of user interface and in cohesion with other elements of the layout help to guide a user and make using the site faster, easier and more enjoyable.

 

The illustrations accomplished by Tubik Studio for Ribbet were no exception. To be more particular, the task for the designer was to create a pack of thematic illustrations that would reflect the ideas of popular annual events. The images were intended to work as fancy cards which could be used for instant creating invitations for birthdays, weddings, parties as well as nice postcards and other pretty stuff.

 

So, given to the task, the whole pack of illustrations needed to have the same format and style providing the feeling of consistency. Moreover, it was important to make it corresponding to the general design of the site. This requirement was eased due to previous studio work: Tubik Studio designers had worked with Ribbet on new design of the site and new logo, which soon are going to be presented on the site itself and are already widely seen in Ribbet social networks accounts. So, starting work on illustrations, the designer had already got the general concept of the editor design. It influenced on general style of the images as well as selection of appropriate colors and shades.

 

Case Study Ribbet Tubik Studio

General design of the web-site and logo for Ribbet by Tubik Studio 

 

In process it was also vital to remember that the images had to obtain high level of adaptability and be recognizable, bright and clear in all sizes possible to be seen at. Moreover, they had to be ready to save their beauty and style in printed version as well. As you can see, the designer had to keep loads of things in his mind.

 

The first stage of the work required making choice about the general stylistic decision which would satisfy all the parts of the assignment. Although there are numerous stylistic trends for digital illustration nowadays, in this case search of the style was not really long and the decision was made to create all the pack of illustrations in flat design stylistics. It matched efficiently with general stylistic concept of the site and was obviously defined as trendy and diverse.

 

After deciding on general style, the next stage witnessed the most creative and elaborate part of the process which was classic old-school pencil sketching. The designer worked hard and devoted a lot of soul and passion to creating catchy details, pleasant-looking backgrounds and bright characters that would be easily recognizable, capturing, stylish and fancy.

 

Illustration in sketches

 

Illustration in sketches

 

Illustration in sketches

 

Illustration in sketches

Tiny part of sketching stage

 

When all the ideas were completed and agreed-upon, the sketches were converted into their digital body by means of Adobe Illustrator.

 

One more part of the task included sophisticated and thorough work with color. The reason was that it had to correspond not only with the general design of the site but it was also vital to reflect color associations which users typically have for specific holidays, events and special occasions. This kind of multipurpose solution could make user experience even more effective and pleasant. So, the designer accomplished this work with a deep research of common color assosiations about holidays and only afterwards selecting the colors that would fulfill both association and general consistency sides of the editor idea.

 

Having processed each image thoroughly, the designer presented bright and catchy images for the pack of thematic fancy cards, some of which you can see below:

 

Independence Day

Independence Day card

 

St_Patrick_s_day

St. Patrick’s Day card

 

Thanksgiving

Thanksgiving Day card

 

Remembrance_day-01

Remembrance Day card

 

NY_eve

New Year card

 

Mother_s_day

Mother’s Day card

 

Father_s_day-01

Father’s Day card

 

Valentine_s_day

Valentine’s Day card

 

Wedding_day-02

Wedding Day card

 

As it can be seen, the images covered the wide range of religious, public and family holidays.

 

The customer, fully satisfied with all the work presented, has already been using the images actively in their social network accounts as the promotional materials for new features of Ribbet service.

 

Case study Ribbet Designing illustration

The set of cards from Ribbet Facebook page

 

This assignment was full of creativity and inspiration. It has become one more case proving how much sophisticated and rigorous work should be done to create bright multipurpose digital illustration. It also showed that doing preliminary research can help to make the result even more efficient.


Welcome to see other works by Tubik Studio on Dribbble and Behance