Tag Archives: interface

design navigation UI UX tubik studio

UI/UX Design Glossary. Navigation Elements.

One of the basic features of product usability is thoughtfully created navigation. It doesn’t matter if the visual performance is creative, stylish, original, catchy and so on and so forth, in case the users don’t know where they are and how they could reach their goals with the website or app. Whatever is the reason that brings users to your digital product, the high level of respecting them means letting them know what is going on and where they are going at every step of interaction with it. Earlier we have already published the Glossary posts with key terms for the topics of usability and web design as well as business terms and abbreviations. This time the perspective will get focused on navigation aspect: let’s check out what parts and elements of the interface are responsible for this vital issue. 

 

Dribbble shot Tubik Studio

 

Navigation

 

In its basic meaning, the word navigation names the sphere of human activity responsible for enabling a vehicle to get from one place to the other, controlling and supporting this process. According to etymology dictionary, the term has deep roots and comes from the Latin word navigare «to sail, sail over, go by sea, steer a ship,» which in its turn is based on two words: navis «ship» and agere «to set in motion, drive, drive forward». So, to navigate is to make possible for someone or something to cover the planned route. This is the foundation from which the numerous meanings of this word took the start and adjusted in many other spheres.

 

In terms of user experience design, the concept of navigation is one of the basic notions setting the usability. Navigation in this case could be generally defined as the set of actions and techniques guiding users throughout the app or website, enabling them to fulfill their goals and successfully interact with the product. The aspect of efficient navigation has a great impact on setting positive user experience: users start using apps or websites with particular aims and expectations, and that’s designers’ task to set the best and easiest route to solving users’ problems.

 

The aspect of helpful and seamless navigation in UI should be thought-out from the early stages of creating user interface. Users are navigated via interface with a number of interactive elements such buttons, switchers, links, tabs, bars, menus, fields and the like, some of which will be described more in details below.

 

Here in Tubik we support the workflow in which all the basic navigation issues, such as layout, transitions, elements placement and functionality, are set on the early phase of UX wireframing and then checked with simple prototype to make sure all the important operations and options are clear for users. Neglecting this essential aspect sets high risks that all the other effort on design can be just wasted, so it’s much more user- and client-friendly to start with the basics.

 

Tubik Studio UI sketches

 

Menu

 

Menu is one of the core navigation elements. It is a graphical control that presents the options of interactions with the interface. Basically, it can be the list of commands — in this case options will be presented with verbs marking possible actions like, for example, «save», «delete», «buy», «send» etc. Menu can also present the categories along which the content is organized in the given interface, and this can be the high time for using nouns marking them.

 

Menus can have different locations in the interface (side menus, header menus, footer menus etc.) and different ways of appearance and interaction (drop-down menus, drop-up menus, sliding menus etc.) Any solution, which designer makes about menu functionality, appearance and placement in general layout, should be based on thoughtful user research, analyzing not only potential wishes and expectations of target audience, but also their tech literacy and possible environments in which the digital product could be used. Well-designed menu can significantly speed up the process of achieving goals and satisfying needs that lays the solid foundation for positive user experience.

 

tubikstudio ui app design

 

Here is the example of mobile blogging app interface which features left-side menu presenting the categories of content. The copy describing positions in the menu is supported with icons presenting recognizable visual mark for the category.

 

mobile app design tubik studio

 

The presented app UI concept shows the type menu applying the effective technique of color marking: when users move to a particular category, the specific background color is used for all the content in it, which forms strong associations and quick perception of the nature and theme of data the user sees.

 

CTA

 

Behind the widely used abbreviation CTA, designers and content creators mean call to action. This is actually the word of phrase which stimulates users to interact with a product in a way and for the aim it is designed for. CTA elements are the interactive controls which enable users to do the action they are called to. Typical types of such interactive elements in the layout are buttons, tabs, or links.

 

In the interfaces of all kinds, CTA elements are the core factor of effective interaction with the product, which plays the crucial role in usability and navigability. When all the path of interaction and transitions is built clearly for users but CTA element is not thought-out, placed or designed well, users can get confused and will need to take additional effort trying to achieve their goals. That sets the high risk for poor conversion rate and general user experience. That’s why this navigation element should draw particularly deep designers attention. In any interface, it should be one of the most prominent and quickly noticeable parts to inform users how the product can be helpful or useful for them.

 

Contact List Concept Scrolls Tubik

 

As we mentioned in the article with tips on copy content in UI, some call-to-action elements may be represented with icons that don’t require copy using widely and instantly recognized images such as a telephone receiver for making a phone call or the envelope for opening received mail. The app interface presented above shows this case: the button with a receiver is the most prominent interactive element on the screen navigating user to achieving their goals with app quickly, and it doesn’t need the copy to let users understand what action can be done with it.

 

However, when the image of an icon is not so obvious or can be misleading, it is more effective to use double scheme, when the icon, button, or link is supported with the copy.

 

landing page UI design tubik studio

 

The example above features the landing page for a web platform devoted to cooking seafood. The headline of the page presents a call to action and immediately sets the theme by both verbal and visual means. Still, this call to action is not interactive. The active CTA elements are clickable buttons informing users that after clicking they can see more information on the particular topic or recipe. The bright color enhances visual hierarchy on the page and draws users’ attention to the key interactive zone.

 

Bar

 

Bar is a section of user interface with clickable elements enabling user to quickly take some core steps of interaction with the product or it can also inform user on the current stage of process. Among the basic types of bars, we could mention:

Tab bar — in mobile applications, it appears at the bottom of an app screen and provides the ability to quickly switch between different sections of an app.

 

tubik studio tapbar ui

 

Loading bar — the control informing user on the current stage of action, when the process is in active stage and user can see the flow via timing or percentage shown in progress.

 

tubik studio motion design

 

Progress bar — provides feedback on a result of the current process so far, for example, showing how much of the planned activity has been done.

 

juicy player UI Tubik Studio

 

Button

 

Button is, perhaps, one of the most popular elements of any interface. Button is the element which enables user to get the appropriate interactive feedback from the system along a particular command. Generally speaking, button is a control with which user directly communicates to the digital product and sends the necessary command to achieve a particular goal, like, let’s say, send the email, buy a product, download the data, turn on the player and tons of other possible actions. One of the reasons why buttons are so popular and user-friendly is that they efficiently imitate interaction with the objects in physical world.

 

Modern UI buttons demonstrate high diversity and can serve plenty of purposes. Typical and frequently used buttons which present an interactive zone, usually clearly marked out for visibility and having a particular geometric shape and often supported with the copy explaining what action will be fulfilled via this button. Designers usually apply considerable time and effort for creating effective and noticeable buttons that are harmonically added into general stylistic concept but are contrast enough to stand out in the layout.

 

tubik studio page 404

 

Besides, we could also mention several types of buttons with additional functionality, widely used in mobile and web interfaces.

 

Hamburger button — the button hiding the menu: clicking or tapping it, user sees the menu expanding. It is called so as its form consisting of three horizontal lines looks like typical bread-meat-bread hamburger. Nowadays it is a typical element of interaction, still highly debatable due to the number of pros and cons.

 

Most users who visit and use websites on the regular basis know that this button hides the core categories of data so this trick does not need additional explanations and prompts. Hamburger menus free the space making the interface more minimalist and full of air as well as allow massive saving place for other important layout elements. This design technique also provides additional benefits for responsive and adaptive design hiding navigation elements and making the interface look harmonic on different devices. Although hamburger menus still belong to highly debatable issues of modern web and app design, they are still widely used. The arguments against hamburger menu are based upon the fact that this design element can be confusing for people who do not use websites regularly and can get misled with the sign which features a high level of abstraction. So, the decision about applying hamburger button should be made after user research and definition of target audience’s abilities and needs.

 

tubik studio ice ui website

The presented website concepts uses hamburger button to hide the menu and support general minimalist approach to the visual performance of the layout.

 

Plus button — the button that being clicked or tapped presents the ability to add new content, be it a new contact, post, note, position in the list — anything user could do as the basic action with the digital product. Sometimes, tapping this button users are directly transferred to the modal window of creating content, in other case there is also a medium stage when they are given additional option to choose from and make adding the particular piece of data more focused.

 

tubik studio button ui

 

Here is the concept showing that plus button first enables a user to choose the category of the added content (image, video, text) and only then directs to the particular screen where it can be done. This practice takes seconds still makes experience more user-friendly as designers can present users with modified options of adding content for every particular case.

 

Share button — the button enabling a user to share the content or achievement directly to social networking accounts. In vast majority of cases, it is presented with icons which present a brand sign of particular social networks and are easily recognizable.

 

Switch

 

Switch is a control that enables users to switch the option on or off. Again, it is applied with the high level of efficiency and popularity in modern interface because it presents the direct imitation of switches people are accustomed to in real life. The important point of consideration here is that states of the switch should be visibly clear and brightly different, so that user could avoid applying effort to understand if the option is active or not. Various sorts of contrast and slight animation can make solve the problem making the experience simple and user-friendly.

toonie switch UI animation

Here is the switch turning on and off the alarm in Toonie app. Animation makes the interaction smooth and natural, while changed color of the tab and the toggle transforming into spinning sun let users instantly understand whether the alarm is active. If you want to see the full case study on how this animated element was designed and developed, welcome to check the details here.

 

Picker

 

As it becomes clear from its name, picker allows users to pick the point from the row of options. It usually includes one or several scrollable lists of distinct values, for example, hours, minutes, dates, measurements, currencies etc. Scrolling the list, users choose and set the needed value. This type of interactive element is widely used in the interfaces which have the functionality of setting time and dates.

 

toonie UI animation

 

Checkbox

 

Checkbox is graphical UI element which is used to mark a particular piece of content, usually setting the choice for the binary options. It is another element setting the bridge with the real world as it looks really similar to the process of filling in tests, questionnaires and other stuff of this kind when you put a tick or color the box to mark the option. Checkboxes and switches can be found in any type of user interfaces, especially in the sections of user, screen or page settings. Also, checkboxes present a common part of navigation in apps and websites with functionality of task managers, to-do lists, time trackers and the like.

 

todo list UI app tubik studio

 

Here’s the example of design concept for the mobile to-do app for complex tasks. Tapping the checkbox, users marks the task as done and it automatically gets faded, the copy is colored differently and the font gets bolder to support the contrast of this task with the one which are still in progress.

 


 

Today’s set of our glossary is ready for those who need it and we are going to continue this practice before long. Don’t miss the new sets — the next one will continue the issues of navigation with deeper insights into types of menus and buttons, tags, breadcrumbs and icons. If there are any specific terms you would like to see explained, described and illustrated, feel free to contact via direct message in our Facebook page or Twitter as well as our Quora representative. New definitions are coming soon!

 

Recommended reading

 

Here is the set of recommended materials for further reading for those who would like to get deeper into this topic and learn more on the theme.

 

iOS Human Interface Guidelines

 

Navigation patterns for ten common types of websites

 

3 essential rules for effective navigation design

 

Perfecting navigation for the mobile web

 

Understanding Web UI Elements & Principles

 

User Interface Elements

 

The Most Creative Mobile Navigation Patterns

 

Basic Patterns for Mobile Navigation


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toonie alarm UI design

Case Study: Toonie. UI Animation Development.

In most cases, when users deal with animation in the interface, it takes short seconds and feels as natural as a breath. Being far from design and development routine, it’s almost impossible to imagine that these brief and simple interactions take long hours of thorough work presenting mix of science and art. 

 

In our previous articles we had numerous chances to show you diverse UI animations solving users’ problems and enhancing usability, still they were mostly presented in design perspective. Today’s  case study will set the link between design and development for iOS mobile applications: it will show you collaboration of UI designers, motion designers and iOS developers working over animation for Toonie Alarm. Previous case studies already let you see the creative process for user interface and mascot design, but this time you will come along step-by-step guide on how animation was created for the app. 

 

Time Picker animation

 

Time picker in the alarm application is actually the core part of interaction with the app and the primary element at which motion design and development play the vital role for establishing both usability and visual harmony. Let’s see how science, calculations and code are able to transform into beauty and style.

 

toonie alarm UI animation

 

All the content of animation is placed on custom subclass UIView, for this case we call it AnimatedDayView.

 

layers_scheme toonie-ui-animation

 

The bottom layer is Infinite UIScrollView (1 on the scheme above). It is the endless scroll view that includes the copies of the image below.

 

toonie scroll animation

 

There are numerous ways of realization for endless scroll. The main idea of replacement in scroll view is to recalculate the size of the scroll view and replace the invisible previous image showing the new one and adding the one for the future.

 

In the case of animated time picker for Toonie, we took the starting point as 6 AM, therefore the middle point is 6 PM and the ending point is 6 AM of the next day.

 

The next layer is Stars UIImageView (2). This UIImageView is added over the scroll view and goes round its centre; during this process the Alpha of the layer is changed. It means that in the daytime it is transparent while in the evening time it gradually appears.

 

stars_ui-view_scroll_animation

 

The next layer is CALayer for the sun and the moon— SunMoonBackgroundLayer. It isn’t seen on the scheme as it has the same size as AnimatedDayView. It also rotates around its centre which is below the visible frame of the screen (5).

 

On the SunMoonBackgroundLayer, there are two more layers — for the moon (3) and the sun (4). The layer of the moon rotates to the same angle as SunMoonBackgroundLayer but in the opposite direction. The sun rotates to the higher number of radians.

 

The issue of great importance here was to thoroughly calculate at which number of degrees should each layer be rotated and how far should the scroll go on. The scroll presents the easiest part. The input variable is always time, that is the hour and minutes which user chose on UIDatePicker. With this data, it’s quite simple to calculate the scroll view shifting. Initially it will be zero, which in our case is equal to the time of 6 AM as we set above. Imagine that user has picked the time 9.10 AM. We can understand which number of pixel the view has to shift down or up when we calculate the difference of the time in minutes (190 minutes) and transforming them into pixels. All the scroll ground presents 24 hours, so its height presents 24 hours, therefore 1 minute=image_height/minutes_per_day (60*24). Knowing the value of 1 minute, it’s not difficult to calculate how many pixels are set into 190 minutes. The only thing left to do is to move the scroll on the required number of pixels, which can be also negative in cases when the new time is less than the previous setting.

 

The next important parameter is Alpha of the stars. It can be calculated with understanding at which particular place on the background image we are at the current position. It means that at 6 AM in the top part of the image the stars should have Alpha 0 value because the morning starts. And the stars are ignored, aka kept in Alpha 0, up to 6 PM, and then Alpha value should be gradually increasing so that at midnight Alpha reached 1. The calculation of dynamics and intensity here can be different depending on desired visual effect. The core thing is that we have the basic parameter which we can rely on: the current position on the background image. And it can be easily calculated knowing the time set by the user. With alteration of Alpha motion, attractive visual performance can be effectively reached.

 

To calculate the angle of rotation, we take 360 degrees for 24 hours. So, 0 degree = 6 AM. We calculate the difference in minutes, find the number of degrees per minute and set the degrees required for shifting.

 

Another element of animation is clouds. They appear due to NSTimer. It adds one of the graphic variants for clouds (the app uses three graphic versions) with random coordinate of Alpha (transparency) beyond the limits of the screen on the right side. After that animation of movement (changing the centre) starts from right to left. The timer is launched with the random interval.  After the animation is finished, the cloud is gone.

 

toonie alarm time picker

 

Sun switch

 

Another piece of animation that required attention and creativity was the switch on the Alarm Screen, the actual element of interaction showing that the alarm is set and active or not. Design solution supporting general visual performance of the app was to make the toggle look like the animated sun when alarm was in the active position.

 

toonie switch UI animation

 

Looking over the accomplishment of the presented motion via code, we see that this is the UIView which contains several layers.

 

toonie-ui-switch_animation

 

The first layer is the background of the hole in the switch (1) which has a rectangular shape. Above it, there is the circle — the toggle of the switch (2) which is the centre of the sun. It can move leftwards or rightwards. Another layer is the sun rays (3). They are set as the separate layer because they have the endless animation of rotation.

 

When the switch is off, the rays change their Alpha to 0 and animation stops. Over all the mentioned layers, the largest layer is placed which is the background of the switch (4). This is also the rectangular layer which has a mask CAShapeLayer drawn with two UIBezierPaths.

 

 

The mask cuts off the layer of the required shape and switch gets a look of the final view. For interactive controlling, two Gesture Recognizers are added: UITapGestureRecognizer for pushing and UIPanGestureRecognized for pulling the toggle.

 

This practical case shows that making animation which will realize its problem-solving potential looking attractive and natural is a demanding task requiring thoughtful approach and collaboration of designers and developers for users’ sake. If you want to test everything described above in real interaction, just set Toonie and see how it works. And don’t miss new cases telling more stories of creative process.


Welcome to set up Toonie Alarm via App Store

Welcome to read case studies about user interface design and mascot design for Toonie Alarm

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ios development glossary

IOS Glossary: Architecture, Patterns, Xcode.

As soon as you know the basics, you set the foundation for growth. It works the same way for any job and there is no any secret that many significant innovations are still grounded on diverse knowledge boosting potential and force of creativity. So, today let’s do our homework on the basics and add one more article to the set of professional glossary. Earlier we have already published the Glossary posts with key terms for the topics of UI/UX design and web design as well as business terms and abbreviations. This time the perspective will get changed a bit, featuring first set of terms in the theme of iOS development. Let’s get started briefly reviewing the basic notions common for the sphere of iOS development.

 

iOS

 

Basically, widely known iOS is the well-established abbreviation taking its roots from the phrase «iPhone Operating System» which was created originally for the system of mobile devices produced by Apple such as iPhone, iPad and iPodTouch and now also AppleTV. 

 

User interfaces created for iOS are made on the basis of direct manipulation involving multi-touch gestures. Interface control elements present variety of functions and forms including buttons, sliders, and switches. Gestures taking place in the process of interaction with such type of interface are also various, for instance, swipe, tap, pinch, and reverse pinch; what is more, they all have specific definitions in the context of the iOS operating system. Some iOS applications even use internal accelerometers which can react to the cases of shaking or rotating the device in three dimensions. Another typical feature is portrait and landscape mode switching.

 

From the standpoint of development, Apple gives steady preference to simple and durable things, and this concept is applied to their products, applications, tools and frameworks. It is expected that when iOS developer builds an app for iPhone, it will run on any other device with the iOS. This aspect of iOS development can save large amount of time for programmers as writing code, let’s say, for iPhone, developer uses the same programming language for all Apple’s computing devices. Said otherwise, application created for iPhone can later be even integrated into Mac.

 

In both UI/UX design and development for iOS, specialists making screens and writing code, apply their flight of creativity in terms of definite rules and guidelines to keep. The apps which don’t keep those guidelines risk failing to submit their app to Apple ecosystem of devices. Working over the digital products intended to be used in iOS, professionals need to know iOS Human Interface Guidelines and always keep and eye on updates and fresh recommendations. The set of guidelines for designers states: «As an app designer, you have the opportunity to deliver an extraordinary product that rises to the top of the App Store charts. To do so, you’ll need to meet high expectations for quality and functionality». Actually, the same position works the same way for developers who are offered samples, guidelines and support to find the optimal solutions for user-friendly and effective digital products.

 

ios-developers-tubik-studio

 

iOS architecture

 

As it was mentioned before, iOS allows users to interact with their devices and products using gestures such as swiping, tapping and pinching. These finger actions are typically performed on touch screen displays, which provide fast response and accept inputs from multiple fingers.

 

The iOS architecture can be pictured as four abstraction layers that define it:

 

Cocoa Touch. The layer containing variety of frameworks which define the appearance of the app. It also provides the basic app infrastructure and support for main technologies such as multitasking, touch-based input, push notifications, and many high-level system services.

 
Media. The layer with graphics, audio, and video technologies which developers use to implement multimedia experiences in the apps. The technologies in this layer make enable building apps that look and sound excellent.

 

Core Services. The layer that consists of essential system services for apps. Main services are the Core Foundation and Foundation frameworks, which define the basic types that all apps use. It also contains individual technologies to support features such as location, iCloud, social media, networking, etc.

 

Core OS. The layer including services such as the security, local authentication and core Bluetooth frameworks.

 

Apple recommends developers to write code to the highest applicable layer whenever possible, and only use the lower-level frameworks for features not exposed at higher levels.

 

Architecture design patterns

 

In software development, architecture design pattern is the matter of structure. It is not a finished architecture that can be transformed directly into code. Patterns are similar to the case of reliable practices that the developer can use to solve common problems building an application or system.

 

In general terms, architecture pattern in case of development could be described as reusable solution that could be repetitively applied for the issues that frequently rise within a particular context of development and engineering interactions. This sort of patterns take into account various limitations and restrictions including the problems of hardware performance, availability, environment of use and even particular business goals.

 

Among main architecture design patterns we could mention:

  • MVC (Model–view–controller)
  • MVP (Model–view–presenter)
  • MVVM (Model–view–view-model)
  • VIPER (View-interactor-presenter-entity-routing)

 

First three types of architecture design patterns assume putting the entities of the app into one of 3 categories:

 
Models – give the controller/ presenter/ view-model the data to populate view.
 
Views – display content and are populated by the controller/ presenter/ view-model. Each screen of the app is a ‘view’ which includes buttons, text, menus, fields and etc.
 
Controllers/ Presenters/ View-models – control behavior of the app. Apps are based on event-driven programming, controllers/ presenters/ view-models receive, process and return events.

 

Tubik Studio iOS development

 

To see how it works in practice, let’s take MVC pattern and describe it a bit more in detail. The model-view-controller (MVC) is an architecture design pattern that breaks code down into three parts: user interfaces (views), data (model), and the software that communicates between the two (controller). The building blocks of apps are objects — arrays of code organized with MVC pattern. Each screen of the app is a view: the data model controls the content it displays, and the controller manages communication between the view and the model. The model-view-controller is just one of the architecture design patterns developers use while building the app, still it is popular in development.

 

Xcode

 

Xcode is Apple’s integrated development environment (IDE) and it is the main tool for building iOS apps. iOS developers can work applying either Objective-C or Swift in fact using only Xcode. This software only runs on Macs and there are no official ways to launch it on a Windows or Linux PC.

 

Xcode has tons of features for iOS development, among which:

 

Interface Builder. It allows designing and testing user interface without writing a code. Interface Builder helps to prototype and then connect interface to the source within the Xcode editor.
 
Source Editor. It is a professional editor with code completion, code folding, syntax highlighting, and messages that display warning, errors, and other context-sensitive information.
 
Continuous Integration. It is a feature of OS X Server controlling server-side bots that continuously build, analyze, test, and even archive Xcode projects.
 
XCTest Framework. It assists to build unit tests that check iPhone, iPad, Apple Watch, Apple TV and Mac apps performance.
 
iOS Simulator. It allows prototyping and testing app during the development process. This testing tool simulates iOS, watchOS, and tvOS devices before testing the app on an actual device.

 

iOS programming languages

 

Two fundamental programming languages for iOS development are Objective-C and Swift. The benefits and drawbacks of each language were considered in our earlier post.

 

At the moment Objective-C is commonly described as the general-purpose, object-oriented programming language adding Smalltalk-style messaging to the C programming language. Before Swift came into play, Objective-C had been the main programming language used by developers for OS X and iOS operating systems, and their APIs. Swift, introduced at Apple’s 2014 WWDC, brought its own dose of revolution. In general description, Swift is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm, compiled programming language broadening the previous scope of operating systems as it was developed for iOS, OS X, watchOS, tvOS, and Linux. Swift was designed to enable work with Apple’s Cocoa and Cocoa Touch frameworks as well as the large body of Objective-C code already written for Apple products. 

 

Initially Swift was intended to be more resilient and safer than Objective-C, and also more concise and developer-friendly. It was built with the LLVM compiler framework including in Xcode 6 and using the Objective-C runtime library that enables C, Objective-C, C++ and Swift code to run within one program.  Therefore, it enhances broadening professional horizons for developers making their work more efficient. That was the milestone when developers started their discussion of what is better, tradition or innovation.

 

Since 2014, Swift language has been used by Xcode for coding more often than Objective-C. Objective-C is the initial programming language for building OS X and iOS software and in perspective of all the apps coded for iOS, it presents a superset of the C-programming language and provides object-oriented programming and dynamic runtime. Nowadays, Objective-C is a good fit for early iPhone and it is also effectively applicable for maintaining and updating the apps initially created in it. Swift in its turn is newer  and more flexible programming language for Apple devices that has the best features of C and Objective-C, without the constraints of C compatibility. It keeps step with modern hardware being faster in actual process of coding as well as shorter, more secure and easy-to-use. 

 

tubik ios development

 

Read more about the topic in our previous article 

 

Anyway, the choice of the programming language, framework, method, and tool for creating iOS apps should be based on the intention to provide the efficient product to both the client and the final user. 

 

This set of our glossary is ready for those who need it and we are going to continue this practice before long. Don’t miss the new sets. If there are any specific terms you would like to see explained, described and illustrated, feel free to contact via direct message in our Facebook page or Twitter as well as our Quora representative. New definitions are coming soon!


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