Tag Archives: framework

web-ios-development-trends 2016

Review of Popular Trends and Tools for Developers in 2016

The software technology is constantly evolving, and internet users as well as people creating digital products expect innovations and progress in this field. To provide high-quality development services for clients and final users being competitive on the market, it’s highly advisable for designers and programmers to keep an eye on mainstreams in the professional sphere and try the latest and greatest advances. Although it doesn’t always mean that new tools and trends will immediately replace the current, still the strategy of setting up the sails for every wind usually provides higher level of professional flexibility and growth.

 

The year 2016, which is quickly leaving day by day, has brought a lot of news as well as established some already known tools, trends and techniques even more solidly via practice and updates. Web and app developers have got new frameworks, updating technology and powerful development tools. We have discussed what Tubik Studio developers find popular and important to mention in the domain in 2016 and today want to share the ideas with our readers. So, here is the list of broadly used programming languages, frameworks and tools as well as updates which quickly won their place in the process. As usual, this year development trends and popular choices are driven by greater efficiency, increased customization and ease of use. Let’s check what has been found essential in iOS and web development.

 

iOS development

 

The constantly changing world of mobile phones, tablets and other devices means that businesses keep app developers busy all the time requiring high professional level and flexibility. Every latest version and update of iOS operating system brings new facilities, opportunities and challenges for developers. The following stuff was widely used in creating great variety of iOS apps this year.

 

ios development glossary

 

Alamofire

 

Alamofire is a Swift-based HTTP library for iOS and Mac OS X. It uses NSURLSession and the Foundation URL loading system to provide first-class networking capabilities in a convenient Swift interface that simplifies a number of common tasks for the developers. Alamofire offers chainable response and request methods, JSON parameter and response serialization, authentication, network reachability, Unit and Integration test coverage and many other features. It was initially written in Swift and did not inherit anything from Objective-C.

 

ReSwift

 

ReSwift is Redux implementation of the unidirectional data flow architecture in Swift. The ReSwift library allows everybody to dive into the code, understand every line and contribute. It also supports Swift 2.2 through to Swift 3. ReSwift is quickly growing beyond the core library, providing experimental extensions for routing and time traveling through past app states. It provides separating app components into three important concerns: State, Views and State Changes.

 

Firebase

 

Firebase is a BaaS (Backend-as-a-Service) that started as YC11 startup and grew up into a next generation app development platform on Google Cloud Platform. It supports the web, iOS, OS X, and Android platforms. Traditionally configuration of a server requires fetching data via some API that is written in order to retrieve data from the server. Firebase simplifies storing and retrieving the data via a third party service and comes with its own API. The platform was acquired by Google in October 2014 and received a significant number of new features in May 2016. In the new version, Firebase takes many of Google’s existing developer tools, like Google Cloud Messaging and combines them with new and current Firebase services, among which app indexing, crash reporting, hosting, cloud messaging, AdWords, AdMob, storage, real-time database and others.

 

Swift

 

Before Swift came into play, Objective-C had been the main programming language used by developers for OS X and iOS operating systems and their APIs. Swift, introduced at Apple’s 2014 WWDC, brought its own dose of revolution. In general description, Swift is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm, compiled programming language broadening the previous scope of operating systems as it was developed for iOS, OS X, watchOS, tvOS, and Linux. The latest version Swift 3 got improvements which made code-writing more natural and consistent. By downloading Xcode 8 developers can easily use this new version and move automatically from previous to latest Swift 3 syntax.

 

Tubik Studio iOS development

 

Front-end development

 

Front-end developers also mention dynamic progress in the domain of tools and software, mostly based on the updates of already established platforms and programming languages. JavaScript holds its leading positions because the language is usually used to make web pages more interactive, create games, animations, dropdown menus and take extensive control over the web interface. A large number of web development frameworks have come into JavaScript recently and many of them have already established huge communities such as Angular, Meteor, React and Backbone. Let’s look through the most popular JS frameworks and libraries essential to remember as effective and broadly used in 2016.

 

web developer tubik studio

 

Angular.js

 

Angular.js is a complete, JavaScript-based, open-source, front-end web app framework maintained by Google. It is a common technology to provide a solid base foundation for developers working with the latest industry standards and requirements. The framework provides a set of modern features for rapid app development. New version of Angular.js is called “AngularJS 2” and has been provided with the improved structure and development features. Now it enables to get improved and simple form of validation, two-way data binding, routing and animations. The second version is totally different from previous one, requiring ES6 and TypeScript knowledge.

 

Backbone.js

 

Backbone.js is a framework with a RESTful JSON interface and based on the model–view–presenter (MVP) architectural pattern. The main concept of the framework is that all server-side functions should flow through an API, minimizing the amount of code that needs to be composed for achieving the same powerful functionality of more sophisticated web frameworks. Backbone is a popular web development framework for JavaScript developers because its usability modules are easy to understand, and also it presents a straightforward learning curve. For example, Trello is built using Backbone.js for all the models, views, and routes. Backbone.js 1.3.3 was released in April 5, 2016. The bugs of 1.3.0 — 1.3.2 versions were fixed in the 1.3.3 and it also provided new methods and improvements.

 

MeteorJS

 

MeteorJS is a free and open-source JavaScript web framework written using Node.js. It simplifies the development of real-time mobile and web app that can be built with a singular development interface. Any web app built with Meteor is also automatically compatible with mobile devices. The developers can convert the existing web apps into mobile apps and release them in the most popular mobile app stores. Meteor is also full-stack framework supporting native JavaScript language for building modern and scalable web and mobile apps. The public package repository Atmosphere has thousands of published packages that let to create multiplex apps. The latest versions of MeteorJS are 1.4.2.3 — 1.4.3-beta.1. The main feature is enhanced rebuild performance focusing on the complex apps development. The framework has become more modular with parts that can be packaged, maintained and evolved independently.

 

React.js

 

React.js is an open-source JavaScript library for data rendered as HTML. It is maintained by Facebook and the main area of expertise is supporting implementation of a Virtual DOM. The Virtual DOM is compared with the current state of the DOM generating a list of operations that make the current DOM look like the new one. Those operations are applied quickly in a batch. React.js v15.4.0. was released in November 16, 2016. In the new version, React DOM implementation was moved to the React DOM package.The upgrade solves a few problems such as errors of React DOM import in the same file as the snapshot testing renderer. The version can visualize React components in the Chrome Timeline allowing to see which components are mounted, updated and unmounted.

 

CSS frameworks

 

CSS processors emerged in web development many years ago having quite limited set of features in their early version. Yet, nowadays they are the key points for CSS development. The processors extend CSS with variables, operators, interpolations, functions, mixins and many other usable assets. At the moment, Less and SASS are mentioned among the most popular preprocessors with the large feature sets. However, the news that Bootstrap 4 is migrating over to SASS gives it a slight edge over Less in 2016.

 

programming languages fron-end

 

Bootstrap

 

Bootstrap has become even more popular over the last years. Like any effective front-end framework, Bootstrap includes CSS, HTML and JavaScript components. It adheres to responsive web design standards allowing to develop flexible websites of all complexities and sizes. The framework typically includes the latest and best features because it is continually updated. For example, Bootstrap added themes that met Google material design guidelines shortly after they were published and it was also upgraded to use SASS as a CSS preprocessor.

 

Foundation

 

Foundation is a highly advanced front-end framework useful for designing responsive and flexible websites. The framework supports GPU acceleration for smooth animations and has Fastclick.js for fast rendering on mobile devices. It runs on the SASS preprocessor and includes the Foundation-developed data interchange attribute, which allows loading lightweight HTML sections for mobile and bigger HTML sections for larger screens. Foundation is used by Facebook, eBay and Mozilla, but it is quite complex and may not be suitable for beginners. The version 6.3.0-rc3 was released in December 9, 2016. It has a number of the improvements such as the updates of components and fixed errors of previous version.

 

Back-end development

 

Nowadays lots of programming languages and their frameworks, such as PHP, Java, Ruby and the like, are used for efficient back-end development. Let’s check out the list of popular languages and frameworks often chosen for web projects.

 

web development and programming

 

PHP

 

PHP is an HTML-embedded programming language. The main aim of the language is to allow creating dynamically generated pages quickly. Its frameworks are used for back-end development and widely used for the complex web services. One of the main PHP development concepts is to reuse generic components and modules for faster creation and better performance of the projects. The frameworks allow keeping the codes organized, facilitating scalability and ensuring long-term maintenance.

 

Laravel

 

Laravel is an open-source web framework intended for the development of web apps following the model–view–controller (MVC) architectural pattern. The framework has a lot of fresh features and lightweight templating engine that helps developers complete the most frequent tasks like authentication, sessions, queuing and caching. Laravel has a micro-framework Lumen focusing on lean management. It helps to develop sub-projects and micro-projects and allows programmers to put them into the main framework by just copying the code into the particular project. Laravel 5.3 was released in August 23, 2016. The new features are focused on speeding up developer’s performance by adding the set of extra improvements for common tasks, for instance Laravel Scout (a driver based full-text search engine for Eloquent), Laravel Passport (the technology deploying OAuth2 server), Laravel Mailable, Laravel Notifications, Laravel Echo (an improvement to the existing event broadcasting system), a new $loop variable of Laravel Blade and a huge overhaul of documentations.

 

Yii

 

Yii is an open source, object-oriented, component-based, MVC framework, easy to use for developing web apps and APIs. It has a reliable code generator allowing to save time writing code to connect to the database and also it uses the ActiveRecord pattern for object-relational mapping which means less SQL code to write. The main benefit of the framework is the ability to decrease the complexity of developer’s work. Products created with the Yii framework are characterized as efficient, extensible and easy to maintain. The latest version of Yii was released on October 20, 2016 presenting a complete rewrite of Yii on top of PHP 5.4.0.

 

Symfony

 

Symfony is an open-source web framework built on top of components such as Drupal, Ez Publish, and phpBB. These components are reusable PHP libraries used to complete tasks like creation, routing, object configuration, authentication, templating, etc. Symfony APIs also enable easy integration with third-party apps and Symfony can be used with popular front-end frameworks such as AngularJS. The latest version of Symfony was released in December 13, 2016 with enhanced performance and fixed bugs for providing the reliable workflow.

 

Node.js

 

Node.js is an open-source, cross-platform, JavaScript runtime environment that allows developers to run JavaScript code on the server, outside a browser. It is built on top of Google Chrome’s V8 VM engine supporting JavaScript in the chrome browser. Node.js wins high popularity because it enables to build large scale, real-time and scalable mobile and web apps with only JavaScript. As the Node.js ecosystem grew, the frameworks also started to showing progress and speeding up the development workflow. There are many Node.js frameworks that simplify building real-time web apps, among them the following:

 

Node.js Express — a minimalist and flexible framework built on top of node.js and has taken node.js to the next level by providing high-level wrappers around node.js APIs. The framework offers all the features required for developing high-quality web apps, mobile apps and APIs. Express also qualifies as Node.js rest API framework.

 

KOA — a lightweight framework for developing web apps and APIs. KOA requests flow through middleware in a stack-like manner allowing developers to perform actions downstream then filter and manipulate the response upstream. KOA generators also greatly increase readability and robustness of the app.

 

Sails.js. — a web framework that sets platform for easy building custom, enterprise-grade Node.js apps. The framework is designed to resemble the MVC architecture from frameworks like Ruby on Rails but it has more modern, data-oriented style of web app development. Sails.js has all the features required for building anything from a small scale chat client to an enterprise grade web app.

 

Ruby

 

Ruby is dynamic, object-oriented, open source programming language with a focus on simplicity and productivity. Moreover, Ruby has framework which supports high level of flexibility for developer in the process of creating code for particular aims. Ruby on Rails is a development tool to give web developers libraries providing structure for all the code they write. Actually, it is a server-side web app framework that extends Ruby programming language. This framework uses Ruby to dynamically assemble HTML, CSS, and JavaScript files. Rails helps developers to build websites and web apps abstracting and simplifying common repetitive tasks. Rails 5.0 was released on June 30, 2016, introducing Action Cable, API mode, and Turbolinks 5.

 

ruby-on-rails web development

 

Java EE

 

Java EE is a platform for creating large-scale apps and software in the Java programming language. It includes a runtime development environment as well as an API and has additional features in comparison with the standard edition, including web services, distributed architectures, multi-tier architectures and object-relational mapping.

 

.NET Framework

 

.NET Framework is a technology that supports building and running the next generation apps and web services. The framework consists of the common language runtime and the .NET Framework class library. The common language runtime is the foundation of the .NET Framework. The technology provides language interoperability across several programming languages (each language can use code written in other languages).

 

copywriting for digital products

 

Even this review, briefly describing popular tools and software, shows that the sphere is constantly growing and offering new opportunities for both developers and users. Whatever broad and diverse the list of tools will be, in practice developers choose what is better for them only by taking their own steps and breathing life in digital products via code. The best tool, software and technique is the one that enables to provide the final product which is effective, user-friendly and solid in performance. That’s the biggest intention we had compiling this list: providing developers with food for thought on trying something new and reviewing which important things the year has brought. No doubt, the next year will be even more powerful in innovation for app and web development sphere so let’s look forward to them together!


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web development and programming

Back-End Development. Foundation of Digital Product.

Seeing an elegant building, we often don’t even imagine that its shape, height and loads it carries are possible due to solid and powerful foundation hidden from the field of vision. The same happens with digital products: when we open the website that downloads the history of our interactions with it in split seconds, or set the application connecting us with friends and saving our data on any device, when we do simple everyday operations like sending emails or downloading files, most of us don’t know that those interactions are possible due to back-end development which establishes the foundation for effective front-end and enables steady functionality of websites and applications.

 

A lot of internet users and clients ordering services for creating a website or an app think that web development is one-stage process. In fact it is divided into two parts: front-end and back-end development, and for people standing far from this sphere of professional activity, it might be really hard to understand the difference. In our previous articles we have already described general directions of web development and gave a closer review of front-end development issues. Today the theme we raise deals with back-end development, its essence, tools and specific nature.

 

What is back-end development?

 

In general terms, a website or dynamic web application is a number of files containing structure, design, content, and functionality. The technologies and codes that enliven a site, the area of web development which  makes the site run invisibly to users is called back-end. It consists of the server, the database, and the server-side applications. Back-end is the far side of the webpage or screen functionality; to set the analogy, it could be imagined as the brain or the engine of a website or app.

 

For example, when users navigate their web browser to http://tubikstudio.com/, they actually turn to the server where Tubik Studio website files are located and send a request to see them. It should be also noted that loading a website, users aren’t looking at that website directly on the server. The server sends the files to the web browser, which then looks at them locally, on user’s computer. In fact, back-end sets the basis on which front-end development is able to come into play. Back-end developer programs core computational logic of the system including software, website and information.

 

back end development programming

 

What are the objectives of back-end?

 

The key tasks of back-end are accessing the data that users request through the web browser or app, combining and transforming it, and returning the data in its processed form to the requester.

 

Accessing the data that users request
Any time of day or night, there’s always the chance that users will ask for data surfing the website or using the app. Taking it into consideration, back-end should be available on demand being ready to react and respond users’ requests.

 

For practical situation, let’s imagine someone launches an e-commerce startup before their website or app is prepared for a considerable number of users to log in and shop, especially in high season of celebrations like Halloween or Christmas campaigns. In this case the launch is done on shaky ground. What will happen? One day, the website or app will crash. Make no mistake, not being able to get the respond from the website, users will get angry and quickly find deals from the competitors. This is how the invisible foundation of back end directly supports not only digital product, but far more — brands, companies and clients.

 

Back-end always works with data. Developer has to understand it is vital for back-end to be developed on the basis of security practices. This is even more significant when the data interacts with secure information, such as medical, personal, or financial data.

 

Combining and transforming the data
The data that is required for website or app can come from a variety of sources called databases. The task of back-end is finding information the user needs within the databases, which contain enormous amounts of data, and then combine it in a way that provides useful and required results.

 

Imagine that someone downloads the app for travelling or opens the website aimed at this theme and wants to know how to arrive to a particular destination. The website or app will need to get access to the information from the city transport databases, taxi companies, Google Maps and so on and so forth.

 

What happens if the questions, which back-end has to respond, change over time? The structure of back-end is always optimizable which means that developers will be able to respond new requests within its code.

 

Returning the data
Eventually, as soon as back-end gathers and combines all the requested information, the data should be sent to the user. How many internet users can read the information in code produced for back-end? Perhaps, a small handful of chosen. What should others do? To solve this problem, here come the famous APIs playing the role of back-end “translators” transforming pure code into a language legible and edible for humans.

 

For the efficiency of a digital product performance, it is perfect when web designers, front-end developers and back-end developers can work together from the earliest stages of any project and have a constant feedback loop. It provides the ability to choose the best design and development solutions and techologies so that the final result could look great and operate properly.

 

What is the structure of back-end?

 

Back-end includes three parts: server, databases, and APIs.

 

The server is a computer, a device or a program whose purpose is managing network resources and data.

 

web development

 

Alternatively referred to as a databank or a datastore, and sometimes abbreviated as DB, a database is a big amount of indexed digital information. It can be searched, referenced, compared, changed or manipulated with optimal speed and minimal processing expense.

 

APIs (Application Programming Interfaces) are the tools that transport the data sent from back-end to front-end of the website or app. This data, in particular, can include elements of the layout such as buttons, menus, controls, tabs, images, copy, etc.

 

Back-end presents a combination of the databases and the applications written in a server-side language running on the servers.

 

Server-side languages

 

PHP. It is an HTML-embedded scripting language. The main aim of the language is to allow creating dynamically generated pages quickly. PHP is easy to install and deploy, it is staying competitive with lots of modern frameworks, and is the foundation for a number of content-management systems (CMS). PHP powers famous web sites and platfroms such as WordPress, Wikipedia, Facebook etc.

 

Python. It is an interpreted, object-oriented, high-level programming language with dynamic semantics. This programming language is fast, making it effective for getting things to market quickly. Python is simple; its syntax is easy-to-learn, readable and therefore reduces the cost of program maintenance. It is the oldest of the scripting languages, and often referred to as powerful and effective. Python powers famous sites such as YouTube, Google, The Washington Post etc.

 

Java. It is a programming language designed for use in the distributed environment of the Web. Java is similar to C++ language, but it is simpler to use than the latter and enforces an object-oriented programming model. It can be used to create complete applications that may run on a single computer or be distributed among servers and clients in a network. Java powers famous sites such as Twitter, Verizon, AT&T, Salesforce.

 

Ruby. It is dynamic, open source programming language with a focus on simplicity and productivity. Great for building complicated logic on the database side of a website, Ruby connects the back-end and database functionality that PHP and SQL can offer. It is characterized as the language of easy maintenance and high-traffic demands. Ruby powers famous sites such as Hulu, original version of Twitter, Living Social, Basecamp etc. Moreover, the framework Ruby on Rails for this programming language has extensive libraries which support higher level of flexibility for developer in the process of creating code for particular aims.  Here in Tubik we also use this programming language as the basis for back-end development.

 

C#. It is type-safe, object-oriented language that enables developers to build a variety of secure and robust applications that run on the .NET Framework. C# can be used to create Windows client applications, XML Web services, distribute components, client-server applications, database applications, etc. It also can be used to build iOS and Android mobile apps with the help of a cross-platform technology like Xamarin.

 

С++. It is an enhanced C language typically used for object-oriented programming. C++ is effective for complex applications also built on the .NET Framework.

 

Erlang. It is a general-purpose programming language. Erlang has built-in support which increases its level of competitiveness and distribution. It is used in several large telecommunication systems from Ericsson.

 

Server-side frameworks

 

ASP.NET. It is an open source web framework for building modern web apps and services with .NET. It creates websites based on HTML, CSS, and JavaScript that are simple, fast, and can scale to millions of users.

 

Ruby on Rails. It is an open source Ruby language framework for developing database-backed web applications. Ruby on Rails is also full-stack framework which includes everything needed to create a database-driven web application, using the Model-View-Controller pattern.

 

Django. It is a high-level Python language web framework that encourages rapid development and clean, pragmatic design. Django is also free and open source.

 

Node.js. It is a JavaScript runtime built on Chrome V8 JavaScript engine. Here are some examples of Node.js frameworks:

  • Hapi.js
  • Socket.io
  • Express.js
  • Mojito
  • Meteor
  • Derby
  • Mean.js
  • Sails.js
  • Koa.js
  • Total.js

 

Relational database management systems (RDBMS)

 

In order to work properly, every website needs a database to store its code, images, files and other data. The following relational database management systems (RDBMS) are the most popular for web-based applications:

  • MySQL
  • PostgreSQL
  • MongoDB
  • Microsoft SQL Server
  • Oracle
  • Sybase
  • SAP HANA
  • IBM DB2

 

web development

 

Let’s draw up the balance. Front-end is the part of the website or app which users see and interact with. Back-end is the engine behind the interface, allowing data validation, processing and storing.

 

Recommended reading

 

Server-Side Scripting: Back-End Web Development Technology

 

Web Development. Basics of the Job.

 

3 Web Dev Careers Decoded: Front-End vs Back-End vs Full Stack

 

The Languages and Frameworks You Should Learn in 2016

 

I Don’t Speak Your Language: Frontend vs. Backend

 

Basics of Back-End Development

tubik studio web development

Front-End Development. From UX Design to Code.

User interface serving the aims of positive and problem-solving user experience is one of the key aspects of creating digital product, still it’s web development that enables users to get real and live surfing experiences. With the course of time, more and more businesses are going online, so there appear some loose ends that need to be cured through user experience. In business struggle, everyone wants to please their customers and engage them to return again. Today, businesses realizing the value of thought-out and professionally built user experience are able to take the best from digital technologies and products. Full-cycle UX design gets its live version via web and mobile development transfroming step by step from subtle idea to real digital product.

 

Getting down to cases, online businesses are all about user experiences and of course the products and services they are selling. Have you seen websites like Amazon, eBay, AliExpress? They are convenient and helpful for their users even being huge websites that offer millions of products and thousands of services. The value of thought-out UX and efficient UI is irreplaceable. How could this result be achieved? This is the point when the power of front-end development comes into play to not just enhance the look and feel of website but also take the major role in increasing the level of user experience.

 

Tubik Studio design team

 

What is front-end?

 

All websites consist of structure, data, design, content, and functionality. Creating user-facing functionality is the task of front-end developer. Using a combination of markup languages, design, client-side scripts and frameworks, they create everything that users see and interact with: content, layout, and functional elements.

 

Three main parts of every website are: the client, the database, the server. The client is simply the web browser a person is using to load a site, and it’s where client-side technology is unpacked and processed. In a general way, a server is a computer, a device or a program that is dedicated to managing network resources and data. The server is at a remote location anywhere, it is holding data, running back-end of a website, processing requests, and sending response to the browser. The client is anywhere the users are loading a site: mobile devices, laptops, or desktop computers. Server-side scripting is executed by a web server; client-side scripting is executed by a web browser.

 

front end develoment tubik studio

 

Let’s have a closer look at this process.

 

The Server — this part of website is responsible for holding data, running the website’s back-end architecture, processing requests, and sending response to the browser.

 

The Client — requests pages from the Server, and displays them to the The User. In most cases, the client is a web browser.

 

The User — uses the Client in order to surf the web, fill in forms, watch videos online, in other words and interact with webpage.

 

web development server

 

To see how it works in practice, let’s take the flow of interactions with Tubik website for example.

 

The User opens his/her web browser (the Client), then loads http://tubikstudio.com/. The Client (on the behalf of the User) sends a request to http://tubikstudio.com/ (the Server), for our home page. The Server then acknowledges the request, and replies the client with some meta-data (called headers), followed by the page’s source. The Client receives the page’s source and renders it into a human viewable website. The User types «Case Study» into the search field, and presses ‘Enter’. The Client submits that data to the Server. The Server processes the data, and replies with a page matching the search results. The Client, once again, renders that page for the User to view.

 

Processes running in web browser are the following: when the page is in process of loading, scripts are embedded within and interact with the HTML of a site, selecting elements of it, then manipulating those elements to provide an interactive experience. Next, scripts interact with a CSS file that styles the way the page looks. It dictates what work the server-side code will accomplish and returns data that’s pulled from the site in a way that’s readable by the browser.

 

For example, when we open home page of Tubik Studio website, the back-end is built to pull specific data from the database to Client, while front-end scripts render this data into readable for human view webpage.

 

Front-end languages

 

Widespread client-side languages which front-end developers use regularly and have to know include:

 

JavaScript: With its frameworks and libraries, it’s the core of front-end development, and beyond. It is called the first client-side language and is still the most common client-side script on the web.

 

HTML: Every front-end developer has to know this language. It dictates a site’s organization and content and all interaction. HTML elements can annotate footers, headers, how text is displayed , how media and images are appeared, and more.

 

CSS: Cascading style sheets (CSS) is broken into modules and comprises the code for every graphic element—from backgrounds to font—that make up the look and feel of a website.

 

programming languages fron-end

 

Front-end frameworks

 

A framework is a hierarchical directory that encapsulates shared resources, such as a dynamic shared library, nib files, image files, localized strings, header files, and reference documentation in a single package. Here are some popular frameworks that are usually used.

 

AngularJS: This framework and several other JS frameworks, like Backbone.js, Ember.js, Express.js or ReactJS demonstrate the capabilities of JavaScript.

 

jQuery: It is a fast, small, JS object library that streamlines how JavaScript behaves across different browsers.

 

Bootstrap: This leading mobile-first framework includes HTML, CSS, and JavaScript to facilitate rapid responsive app development. With Bootstrap, website is compatible with all modern browsers and looks great on any size screen, from tablets to phones, from laptops to desktop computers.

 

Foundation: Responsive front-end framework is used by sites like Facebook, Yahoo!, and eBay.

 

Semantic UI: It is a development framework that helps create beautiful, responsive layouts using human-friendly HTML.

 

Yeoman: It is a generic scaffolding system allowing creating of any kind of app.

 

Pure.css: It is the set of small, responsive CSS modules that you can use in every web project.

 

Skeleton.css: As Skeleton’s developers stated: “A dead simple, responsive boilerplate.” It is the set of small and easy, responsive CSS modules that can be used in every web project.

 

web development framework

 

The next posts about web development are coming soon for those who are interested and in them we are going to tell you more details about different aspects of the job: the closest ones will tell about specific features and tools for back-end, web developers work flow, and trends for front-end development. Don’t miss!


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