Tag Archives: branding

color psychology in design

Color in Design: Influence on Users’ Actions.

Every single day we’re surrounded by various colors from everywhere. If you take a closer look at the things around, they may surprise you with a number of colors and shades. People may not notice how colorful everyday things are but the colors have the significant impact on our behavior and emotions. Today our article is devoted to the science studying this issue called color psychology. Let’s define the meaning of the colors and review some tips on choosing suitable colors for the design.

 

tubik studio design

 

What is color psychology?

 

It’s a branch of psychology studying the influence of colors on human mood and behavior. The thing is that our mind reacts on colors while we usually do not notice it. The moment our eyes perceive a color, they connect with the brain which gives signals to the endocrine system releasing hormones responsible for the shifts in mood and emotions. These days a lot of research is conducted in order to study the peculiarities of these reactions and there are already many theories useful to learn. Color psychology is helpful in many industries including business, marketing, and design.

 

The success of the product depends largely upon the colors chosen for the design. The properly selected colors help put users in the frame of mind that compels them to take action. The research provided by Colorcom showed that it takes only 90 seconds for people to make a subconscious judgment about a product and between 62% and 90% of that assessment is based on color alone. So, the basic knowledge of color psychology can be useful on the way of improved conversion for your product. Moreover, accurately chosen colors can advance usability of the product.

 

Meaning of colors

 

To convey the right tone, message and call users to make the expected action, designers need to understand what colors mean and what reaction they evoke. In one of our previous articles, we’ve demonstrated you the list of colors with brief descriptions of their meanings. Today we have prepared a bit more expanded list of color meanings in common use and in design.

 

Red

The color usually associates with passionate, strong, or aggressive feelings. It symbolizes both good and bad states of mind and soul including love, confidence, passion and anger. In design, the use of red color is an effective way to draw users’ attention. Also, it’s recommended to use red sparingly to avoid the negative reactions.

 

toonie alarm mascot design tubik studio

Toonie Alarm app tutorial

 

Orange

It is an energetic and warm color bringing the feelings of excitement. Orange combines red’s power and yellow’s friendliness, so it may bring feelings of motivation, enthusiasm, and love to life. Designers use the color if they need to give the spirit of creativity and adventure.

 

logo design tubik studio

fOxygenic Logo

 

Yellow

This is the color of happiness which symbolizes the sunlight, joy, and warmth. Yellow is thought to be the easiest color to visibly see. What’s more, it has one of the most powerful psychological meanings. Users seeing yellow colors in the design can feel the inspiration and confidence. Although, you need to remember that too much yellow may bring negative reactions such as the feeling of anxiety or fear.

 

stardust_bikers_webpage_ui_tubik_studio

StarDust website

 

Green

It’s often called the color of nature, balance, and harmony. Green brings calming and renewing feelings. Also, it is a sign of growth and inexperience. It has more positive energy than most other colors but sometimes it associates with materialism. Design in green colors perfectly suits to the products connected with nature.

 

Big_city_guide_Stockholm_tubik

Big City Guide: Stockholm

 

Blue

It often represents some corporate images since the blue is the color of trust. It usually shows reliability, may give users calming feelings. However, as a cool color, it also associates with distance and sadness, so designers need to keep it in balance.

 

design_for_business_tubik_studio_book

Design for Business E-book

 

Purple

Long associated with royalty and wealth since many kings wore purple clothes, it’s useful for presenting some luxurious products. It’s also a color of mystery and magic. It mixes the energy of red and blue, so it has a balance of power and stability. A big concentration of the color may distract users’ mind.

 

night_in_berlin_event_list_ui_tubik

Night in Berlin App

 

Pink

It is the color of hope, sensitivity, and romance. Pink is much softer than red, so it creates the sense of unconditional love. Pink is associated very strongly with youthful femininity, so it may be an effective color if the target audience is mostly girls and young women.

 

tubik studio app design

Dating App

 

Brown

The color of security and protection like the mother Earth. Designers commonly use brown as a background color in a variety of shades, from very light to deep. It brings the feeling of warmth and comfort to the designs. Also, it may be used to show the experience and reassurance.

 

jewellery_e-commerce_app_concept_by_tubik

Jewelry E-Commerce App

 

Black

The color has a great number of meanings. It associates with tragic situations and death. It signifies a mystery. It can be traditional, modern, serious. Everything depends on how you employ it and which colors go with it. Black matches well with any other color, so it’s ideal for the background. Designers often use it to set contrasts.

 

Bakery website animation

Vinny’s Bakery

 

White

The color means purity and innocence, as well as wholeness and clarity. White often associates with a blank sheet of paper motivating people to generate new ideas. However, too much white can cause the feelings of isolation and emptiness. In design, white is commonly used as the background color especially for the resources for which readability is a vital part.

 

tubikstudio ui animation website design

Bjorn website

 

Color meanings in branding

 

Colors are a vital factor for not only the visual appearance of products but also brand recognition. Nevertheless, in branding, colors tend to have more direct meanings than in common understanding. They can be briefly described within a few words, so here is the list for you:

 

  • Red. Confidence, youth, and power.
  • Orange. Friendly, warm, and energetic.
  • Yellow. Happiness, optimism, and warmth.
  • Green. Peace, growth, and health.
  • Blue. Trust, security, and stability.
  • Purple. Luxurious, creative, and wise.
  • Black. Reliable, sophisticated, and experienced.
  • White. Simple, calm, and clean.

 

realli_logo_animation_tubik

Realli logo animation

 

Color Preferences

 

Visual perception is quite individual for everyone. Designers need to remember that the color effects may be different because of the factors such as age, culture, and gender. First of all, people’s preferences can shift during the life whatever the object is, let’s say, food, clothes, music, colors and plenty of other aspects. It is caused by both mental and physical changes that happen to us across the lifetime. For example, children like yellow color pretty much, but as we become adults it usually seems less attractive. Faber Birren explains it in his work Color Psychology and Color Therapy: “With maturity comes a greater liking for hues of shorter wavelength (blue, green, purple) than for hues of longer wavelength (red, orange, and yellow)”. One more difference between children’s perception and adult is that kids can change their favorite colors fast, while adult color preference is usually non-malleable.

 

Also, designers need to consider that there are many cultural differences and color perception is not an exception. Sometimes cultures define colors diversely, for example, in Western countries, white color means happiness and purity, while in some Asian countries it symbolizes death. You can find many examples of how different may the meanings be in countries but it would take a whole article to tell about it, so if you’re interested in the topic, follow our updates on the blog since the post on this issue is coming soon.

 

Another point on the color preferences is gender. Many color studies have been done over the years and a lot of them say that the color preferences of women and men significantly differ. The Color Assignment group has conducted a deep research on this topic and many designers already use the results in the creative process. We’ve defined the most notable things from the research to share with you.

 

Blue is the top color. Both men and women of all ages think of blue as the favored color.The shades of blue such as cerulean, azure, beryl, cornflower blue, and sapphire are popular among women.

 

Brown and orange are in dislike. The first one considered less favorable among men, the second — among women.

 

Cool colors are preferred. Men and women favor blue, green and their tints in general.

 

Women like tints. When men prefer pure or shaded colors, ladies are good with tints.

 

Men prefer achromatic colors. White, black and gray are neutral colors and men are keen to choose them.

 

Favorite colors

 

favorite color on gender

 

Least favorite colors

 

least-fav-colors-gender

 

Source of charts

 

It’s vital to consider color preferences of the target audience while creating UI and UX design since it helps to avoid negative reactions and associations.

 

Points to consider

 

Color psychology is rather complex to understand and learn. However, it may become an efficient tool in designers’ hands helping to understand users and their demands. Summarizing the article, here is the list of useful things to consider:

 

  • Choose the colors wisely. They have a deep influence on the users.
  • Make sure your design and its colors convey the right message and tune.
  • Learn your target audience. The color preferences and meanings depend on many factors including age, gender, and culture.
  • Some colors may look different on the screens of different devices. Additional testing never hurts.
  • It may be a good idea to test the UI colors with representatives of the target audience.
  • Try to make the color combinations wisely, in the best way for the users’ perception.

 

Recommended reading

 

Here are some books and articles we could recommend for those who would like to get deeper into the topic:
 

Responding To Color

 

Birren, Faber., Color Psychology and Color Therapy.

 

Color Theory for Designers, Part 1: The Meaning of Color

 

Color Associations

 

Why Color Matters

 

The Psychology of Color in Marketing and Branding

 


Welcome to see the designs by Tubik Studio on Dribbble and Behance

year in review tubik studio design

Tubik Studio 2016. Year in Review.

Bright, fast and furious, the year 2016 is over. For Tubik Studio it was dynamic, bright, rich in meetings, shots, interesting projects and non-stop professional growth. The company got bigger, more experienced and diverse. Traditionally, we start every new stage of our workflow remembering the most significant points of what has already been done, and today won’t be an exception. Let’s take a moment to turn back for a while and remember some outstanding things that marked 2016 for our team.

 

Being active on Dribbble, we published over 170 shots. Welcome to look through the set of top positions in the categories of UI/UX design, animation, branding and illustration. Following the links, you will be able to see all their detailed descriptions and full-size attachments.

 

Top Twenty UI/UX shots

 

tubik studio web design

Page 404

 

tubikstudio travel gear landing

Travel Gear Landing Page

 

tubikstudio library widget

Library Widget

 

tubikstudio ui webdesign

Comics Shop Home Page

 

graphic design tutorial tubik studio

Singify App Tutorial

 

Christmas graphic design tubik studio

Magic Christmas App

 

tubikstudio homepage design

Event Agency Webpage

web design UI concept tubik studio

The Big Landscape

 

tubik_studio_website_ui_bakery

Vinny’s Bakery

 

health care app UI design

Health Care App

 

website design tubik studio

Adventure Agency Website

 

landing page UI design tubik studio

Website on cooking seafood

 

tubikstudio graphic design illustration

Ryiadh Tour Guide

 

tubik studio design

Weather App Concept

 

mobile app design tubik studio

Moneywise App

 

travel app tutorial tubik studio

Travel App Tutorial

 

snake battle app UI design

Snake Battle

 

toonie alarm UI design

Toonie Alarm

 

online magazine design tubik studio

Daily Bugle Online Magazine

 

book swap app tubik studio

Book Swap App

 

Top Twenty Animated shots

 

tubik studio web ui design

Birds of Paradise Encyclopedia

 

landing page animation Tubik studio

Magic.co landing page animation

 

 

tubik_studio_book_swap

Book Swap App

 

Landing Page Animation Tubik Studio

Organic — landing page animation

 

tubik studio healthy food animation

Healthy Food App 

 

tubik studio application recipes and cooking

Recipes App

 

tubikstudio ui design

BuonApp

 

website design UI

Architecture Firm

 

Tubik studio UI animation

Museu

tubik studio ice ui website

Ice Website

 

tubikstudio ui animation website design

Bjorn Website

 

ui animation cafe app tubikstudio

Cafe Coupon App

 

apple even animation tubik studio

Apple Event Animated Graphics

 

gym landing page concept by Tubik

Gym Landing Page

 

tubik studio animated illustration

Lowrider

 

tubik_toonie_help_screens_interaction

Toonie Alarm tutorial

 

animation design

Night Run Animation

 

Contact List Concept Scrolls Tubik

Contact List Concept

 

animated tutorial

Social Network Tutorial

 

motion design tubik studio

Rocket Animation

 

Top Ten Branding shots

 

business cards design

Deetu Business Cards

 

logo design music app tubik studio

Switch-up logo

 

logo design tubik studio

fOxygenic logo

 

andre logo design tubik studio

Andre logo 

 

logo design branding tubik

Pickitout logo

 

lion browser logo tubik studio

Lion browser logo icon

 

snake battle logo for game app

Snake Battle Logo

horsy logo design branding

Horsy Logo

 

logo design by Tubik studio

Elephun logo

 

logo animation tubik studio

Realli logo

 

Top Ten Illustration shots

 

Rio 2016 Illustration tubik studio

Rio 2016

 

graphic design illustration tubik studio

Californication Bus

 

tubikstudio space wallpapers

Free Space Wallpapers

 

character illustration tubik studio

Indian Dreamcatcher

 

Christmas graphic design tubik studio

Christmas Spirit Illustration

 

game character design tubik studio

Ulf the Viking

 

tubik illustration jazz tales book

Tales of the Jazz Age Book Cover

 

tubik studio illustration graphic design

Muscles Magazine

 

star-wars-rogue-one_tubik_studio_illustration

Star Wars Rogue One Illustration

 

badges illustration tubik studio

PukaPal Badges

 

Top Ten Articles in Tubik Blog

 

2016 brought a great deal of new posts in Tubik Blog to share our ideas, case studies and experience. Here is the list of some articles which got shared and read by big number of readers.

 

tubik blog article

Visual Perception: Icons vs Copy in UI

 

Tubik Studio Interface Animation

UI Animation: Microinteraction for Macroresult

 

toonie alarm time picker

The Ultimate Guide to Creating a Mobile Application

 

book swap app design

UI Animation: Eye-Pleasing, Problem-Solving.

 

lion browser logo tubik studio

Logo Design: Creative Stages.

 

tubikstudio ui ux design

UI/UX Glossary: Steps to Usability.

 

web design tubik studio

Home Sweet Home. Strategies of Home Page Design.

 

tubik studio ui design dark

Dark Side of UI: Benefits of Dark Background.

 

ios-developers-tubik-studio

Review of Popular Trends and Tools for Developers in 2016

 

UI design trends

Review of Popular Design Trends for Interfaces in 2016

 

Top Five Tubik News

 

Growing diversity of services

In 2016 we formed the full team of specialists able to create and maintain a digital product from scratch to release: today we are a comprehensive full-cycle digital agency, with experienced specialists in the domains of branding, UI/UX design for websites and applications, graphic design of any complexity, motion design, iOS and web-development, QA testing.

 

collaboration-process-app-design

 

Variety of outsource projects

2016 brought us the great bunch of outsource design and development projects for diversity of businesses and organizations. They established broad experience of collaboration with different customers, including big and well-known clients. One of the latest projects of 2016 was a «year-in-review» video for Opera.

 

 

In-house iOS application: Toonie Alarm

In 2016, to get closer to our outsource clients, we have set the purpose to create in-house studio products helpful for their target audience and adding some social value as well as giving us comprehensive experience of full path for creating and promoting digital products. In the domain of iOS app design, the product created and released by Tubik in 2016 is Toonie Alarm, entertaining and funny free alarm app for iPhones rewarding users for waking up with cute stickers. 

 


 

In-house content project: Design4Users

Design4Users is a blog devoted to diverse design issues solving users’ problems. It is organized via the basic categories such as «Branding» «Product» «Print» and «UI/UX» and plenty of more detailed tags in the mentioned domains. This resource was started with the aim to provide designers, customers and all those who are interested in this sphere of human activity with a wide variety of useful and interesting content supported with attractive and functional design. The blog is designed, developed and curated fully by Tubik studio team.

 

design4users blog

 

Free e-books by Tubik team

Additional big news was the start of Tubik Magazine, the set of free e-books from us about different aspects, approaches and tips on design and development. The first issue called Design for Business presented a variety of business points and terms important to consider for designers working over goal-centered design for companies and brands. The second ebook called Logo design was devoted to creative stages and strategies of efficient logo design. Both books are supported with practical cases. Welcome to read them or download totally for free.

 

tubik studio free ebook design for business

 

Bright moments of work, rest and creative search were traditionally shared with our followers on studio Instagram page. No doubt, we also didn’t miss the chance to share our ideas, news, tips and experience via Medium and Quora as well as kept everyone updated with studio news via Twitter, FacebookTumblr and Flipboard.

 

new-year-photo

 

Even this quite brief review makes obvious that 2016 was full of everything for our team. And we are ready for new challenges, perspectives and projects in 2017 which will definitely open many new unforgettable creative pages. 

 

 

Warm greetings for everyone from Tubik Studio, we wish you amazing and successful year 2017!

Toonie Alarm UI design

Case Study: Toonie Alarm. App UI Design.

Designing a product for everyday use, it is vital to ground it on the thorough market research, thought-out design presentation and deep analysis of the target audience. No wonder: the stuff like note-apps, alarms, to-do lists, calculators, calendars and the like surround users in their everyday life, help in common situations and sometimes add color to the routine. We have checked that well and now would like to present you the first case telling the design story of the brand new alarm app for iOS called Toonie Alarm which today is featured on Product Hunt and has reached top-5 in the category Tech in 4 hours after featuring.

 

Toonie Alarm UI design

 

Task:

 

Full-cycle UI/UX design for the simple and engaging alarm app for iPhones.

 

Process:

 

The design process for this case was different from typical ones in the studio as before it we had worked more on outsource projects which means that creating initial product concept and setting the task was done mainly by the client’s side. The process for Toonie Alarm took the other direction and gave us what it was set for: the feeling of full product creation process from the very first steps. We had to set the idea and test it competitive potential, establish its USP and marketing plan, branding and usability foundation and all the other stuff like this.

 

Initially the idea behind the app was to create a simple alarm clock with attractive design and consistent element of motivation and support for such a basic and often far-from-pleasant process as waking up. The basic brand image was set as fun, cute, bright and cheerful, and marketing research supported this concept with the analysis of competition and ideas on adding original features to the app.

 

User research and analysis enabled the team to form the USP for the product on the basis of the following set of key features:

  • All the features of the app free for everyone
  • Simple, clear and intuitive navigation
  • Bright and pretty interface
  • Huge set of beautiful stickers
  • Achievements and rewards for waking up
  • Eye-pleasing interactive animation
  • Animated time picker
  • Instant sharing achievement with friends.

 

Let’s look over the details of UI created by Tubik designers.

 

Cute Mascot

 

In one of our previous articles we have already mentioned the great role of mascots in branding and UI design. As for Toonie Alarm, the idea of applying the mascot was set almost instantly as mascot is not only a sort of communicator between interface and user, but also a great representative of the brand able to enhance its recognizability. Moreover, it has a great impact on easy establishing the voice and tone of the product, creating the feeling of natural communication and supporting the mood. That was the point when Toonie was born to be a funny cheerful bird, whose mission is to make the world  brighter and help users to interact with the alarm. It informs users about news, rewards, errors and just adds some fun and color to everyday life.

 

Toonie Alarm mascot design

 

toonie alarm mascot design

 

App Tutorial

 

App tutorial is an important part of the interface which helps users to get informed on the basic interactions. In Toonie Alarm it consists of three screens that tell the user about the functionality of the app. Small concise copy blocks are supported by smooth and pleasant animation of transitions to create the feeling of integrity and cheerful mascot featured as the consistent element and the center of the screen graphic composition.

 

Toonie Alarm Tutorial design

 

Home Screen

 

The home screen shows the alarms which user already set for particular time and days and the tab with funny stickers already collected for waking up. Active alarms toggles feature the animated sun. Left swipe opens active options for the particular alarm.

 

Toonie Alarm UI design

 

Stickers Screen

 

Various stickers become the reward for waking up at the particular period. Moreover, waking up several times at this time, users can level up their stickers and enrich their collection. All the stickers can be shared to social networks to mark users’ achievements.

 

toonie alarm stickers

 

Toonie alarm stickers screen

 

Time Picker

 

Another prominent feature of the app is the animated time picker. The app has simple navigation and nice motion makes it even more intuitive. Picking time for the alarm, users can enjoy animated march of night and day.

 

Toonie Alarm time picker screen

 

Animated Stickers

 

Animated stickers make interaction even more lively and enjoyable and also enhance user experience making the interface attractive and playful.

 

toonie alarm stickers

 

Logo Style

 

Logo design keeps style of lettering associated with fun and entertainment and creating harmonic link to the fonts typical for cute cartoons.

 

Toonie Alarm logo

 

Product Video

 

To catch more details and see the interactions with the app in real, welcome to review the video guide on Toonie Alarm.

 

 

You can also review the presentation of Toonie Alarm design on Behance or check full pack of the details via Toonie Press Kit


Welcome to see full presentation on Product Hunt

Welcome to download Toonie Alarm via App Store

Welcome to see the designs by Tubik Studio on Dribbble and Behance

design4users blog by Tubik

Design4Users Blog. Official Release.

Here in Tubik Studio we have had the opportunity to create a considerable number of design stories, all so different and so unique. It gave us the chance to feel all the benefits and pitfalls of design provided in terms of outsource partnership. To go further and get even closer to final users, to feel all the pains of our clients and all the variety of steps needed for creating an efficient product out of thin air, we have decided to take the next step and launch our own digital products.

 

Today we are happy to announce the release of our first product called Design4Users. It is a content-driven professional platform fully created by the studio team from the ideation and concept phase, to creating branding, developing content strategy and communication model, designing logic and layout (UX), original interface and navigation (UI), providing full-cycle of front-end development and creating responsive webdesign, careful testing and thoughtful content writing.

 

D4U design4users blog

 

Welcome to get a bit more details about the project.

 

Mission and background

 

Design4Users is a blog devoted to diverse design issues solving users’ problems. It’s mission is establishing a solid highly informative platform for designers, customers, managers, product creators and marketologists focused on the aspects of user-friendly design trends, process, organization, collaboration, resources and tips.

 

One more objective of the blog is promoting and inspiring young designers and sharing expertise of well-known masters in the sphere.

 

Initially, the blog was created as small in-studio platform for sharing useful information on current projects as well as helpful resources, tools, design hacks, inspirational collections etc. Still, growing and active Tubik Blog readers community encouraged us to transform it in the open platform and share our knowledge, practical experience, tips on tools and sources, projects and concepts we find inspiring. And all of them have one thing in common: they are concentrated on design for problem solving, on helping users and making their life brighter, easier, more productive, more profitable and more beautiful.

 

design4users logo

 

Description and functionality

 

The website is organized around several basic categories reflecting different design directions.

 

design4users blog

 

Categories

 

Design: the broadest category focused on general design trends and strategies. It also features reviews for design books and tools, sets of quotes, historical retrospective on design trends, recommendations about useful resources and articles, stories about designers and projects, advice on organization and management of design processes and efficient collaboration with clients etc.

 

Branding: the category considering various issues of design for branding and marketing, creating identity, logo design, copywriting and brand naming, marketing research and content management tips.

 

UI/UX: the category focused on the comprehensive presentation of design processes via practical case studies and articles about design for digital products like websites and mobile applications. Covers all the variety of topics about user interfaces, user experience, user research, usability testing, interaction design, applying psychology and analytics in design process, organizing effective teamwork for complex design projects.

 

Product: the category offering articles and reviews on full cycle of product design, development and promotion, tips on creating user-friendly problem-solving products, cases of improving lifestyle, professional processes and achieving business goals for products by means of design.

 

Print: the category concentrated on all the variety of design directions and techniques for editorials and books, aspects of graphic design, illustration, typography and lettering, small print forms like postcards, invitations, posters etc.

 

wordpress theme design tubikstudio

 

All the categories can feature posts marked as original D4U sections.

 

  • D4U Inspiration: thematic collections of design works, quotes, videos
  • D4U Interview: interviews with people connected to design sphere, inspiring leaders, newcoming stars etc.
  • D4U Review: books and tools reviews
  • D4U Expertise: presentations of recognized experts in design sphere, their biographies, works, tips, videos and publications.
  • D4U Reading List: collections of recommended articles about from various resources published weekly
  • D4U History: posts about prominent cases and works in the sphere of design in historic retrospective.
  • D4U Case Study: practical case studies giving details on creative process for different design projects.

 

Design and Layout

 

Design of the website is accomplished with a view to effective presentation of both copy and visual materials that are provided in wide variety. Basic background of the web pages is dark, aiming at creating stylish harmony and balance for featured images in preview sections and contract with the light background for the article body supporting better usability and readability of copy blocks.

 

Home page features two blocks of articles: the most popular according to the total number of views and recent, showing the chronological feed of posting.

 

design4users Tubik Studio

 

The users are provided with the ability to switch to another category immediately from the top menu, footer menu and dynamic menu moving in the process of scrolling and making navigation easy. The articles are supported with tags and recommendations on further reading.

 

Subscription is fast and simple, enabling users to get the fresh updates immediately after publishing in their inboxes. Also, readers are able to share the content to the variety of social networks right from the article in split seconds.

 

Welcome to see more details about design for the website in extended Behance presentation

 

Creators

 

Design4Users is the content project fully created, designed and developed by Tubik Studio. Being a comprehensive team experienced in variety of design directions and knowing all the stones on the path, we have decided to set a platform uniting creators via knowledge, practice and inspiration for the sake of design for users.

 

Tubik Studio design team

 

Supplements

 

For those who are interested to get more about the website structure and content in more interactive way, welcome to watch Design4USers Video Tour.

 

 

If you wish to see details and contact information about Design4Users, welcome to check out the Press Kit.

In the next post, we will provide the case study on design process for the website. Stay tuned and join us via Design4Users!


Welcome to see designs by Tubik Studio on Dribbble and Behance

Welcome to Design4Users

Welcome to connect with Design4Users on Facebook and Twitter